betway必威体育app官网丝绸之路(Silk Road)1

Conclusion

华夏负责人的 B 和 R 将迎来一个更连贯的欧亚大陆经济领域,
它可能提升变成一个引领满世界经济的经济实体,
更加是当世界两大经济体的走强时, 欧盟正遭到英美出口的挑衅。
随着新的经济机会正在出现, B 和 R
区域贸易的加码也将造成区域内和内部的人口迁移伸张。 这个新移民,
尤其是源于其它 b 和 r 国民的人, 他们的传统大多是宗教的,
包涵世界上最大的社会风气教派的人数, 无论是西晋如故当代。
那一个新移徙者将无意地将宗教和风俗带入其主人社会,
并将提高社会和宗派的八种性, 并有助于增高地点人口的社会容忍度。 然则,
有意传教的传教士, 传统上遵守商人建立的贸易路线, 或抬高区域间的商业活动,
将大增地方的宗派动态。 这么些有意的 proselytisers 将招募新的皈依者,
从别的迷信或不相同的温和派分支在同一信仰中,
导致更加多的社会宗教紧张关系的主任社会,
成立更加多的非常或新的教派团体社区常常对地面社区遗憾。此外,
中国众生广泛缺乏宗教经验, 由此教派敏感性,
可能会对堵住中国和美利坚联邦合众国关系发展的国家造成负面心理。由此, B 和 R
倡议将有助于一个更种种化的社会-宗教社会, 那说不定会推向更高层次的社会容忍,
从而导致一个更和谐的社会, 或者可能使曾经心神不安的社会-宗教紧张时局升级,
导致破坏性的社会和区域分裂。至于中国的新经济繁荣的愿景,
以取代近来的社会-宗教历史的支离破碎破碎的和不鼎盛的 b 和 r 地区尚有待检验。

对华夏来说,
经济腾飞是一项高风险、高资本、经济回报不确定的行动。宗教层面将追加这么些宏伟项目的危机程度和资金因素。由于美利坚联邦合众国对中国在太平洋的堵塞,
中国的石油供应安全, 巨额外汇储备的累积, 以及基础设备建设的超能力,
中国被迫选用那种稳定。不过, 随着中国和海内外经济的放慢,
美利坚合众国对中华施压的或是缩减, 渤南宁政紧张缓和, 中东与叙瓦伦西亚争执加剧,
Britexit 和民族主义欧盟国家的情怀, 可能会有一部分较小的资产替代方案,
中国的全世界事务进入一个不行预感的一代。也许混沌理论能给我们的水晶球出点光–期待意料之外的作业。

The China-led B&R will usher in a more connected Eurasia economic sphere
which may develop into an economic entity leading the global economy
especially when the strengthen of world’s two largest economies, the EU
as it is under challenged by the exit of Britain and USA as the
Present-elected Trump cause uncertainties volatilities in Market, are
weakening in global economic influence. However the increase inter-B&R
region trades will also lead to increase of inter and intra regional
human migrations as new economic opportunities are emerging. These new
migrants, especially those from other B&R nationals which are mostly
religious in values as B&R contains the world’s largest populations of
most of the world religions, be it ancient or contemporary. These new
migrants will unintentionally carry with them religions and practices
new to their hosting societies, and will enhance the socio-religious
diversities as well as to contribute to the increase of social
tolerances of the local population. However the intentional
missionaries, traditionally following the trade routes established by
merchants, or tagging along with inter-regional commercial activities,
will put increase to the local religious dynamics. These intentional
proselytisers will recruit new converts be it from other faiths or
different moderate branches within the same faith, leading to increase
of socio-religious tensions of the hosting society by creating more
extreme or new groups of religious communities usually resented by local
communities. Furthermore, the general lack of religious experience,
hence religious sensitivities, among Chinese population may contribute
negative sentiment against China among B&R nations hindering Sino-B&R
relations. As a result, B&R initiatives will contribute to a more
diverse socio-religious society which may promote a higher level of
social tolerance leading to a more harmonious society, or may escalated
the already strained social-religious tensions, leading to a destructive
social and regional fragmentation. As for China’s vision of a new
economic prosper B&R region to replace the current
socio-religious-historical fragmented and underdeveloped B&R region is
yet to be tested.

For China, B&R is an economic development initiative high risk, high
cost and with uncertain economic returns. The religious dimension would
increase the risk level and cost factors for this grand project. China
is forced to take such orientation due to the US containment of China in
the Pacific, China’s security of oil supply, the accumulating of huge
foreign reserves, and the available of over capacity in building of
infrastructure. However, with the slowing down of Chinese and global
economy, the perhaps decrease of US pressure on China, de-escalation of
political tension in South China Sea, the intensification of conflicts
in Middle East vis Syria and ISIS, the Britexit and nationalistic
sentiments in EU nations, there may be some lesser costing alternatives
for China B&R as our Global Affairs enters into an age of
unpredictability. Perhaps Chaos Theory can shed some lights to our
Crystal Ball–expect the unexpected.

21 世纪 新棉布之路

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棉布之路经济带和21世纪的海上丝绸之路 (Belt & Road, B&R)
是一项发展战略和框架, 重点是国家间的连通性和合作,
紧假若华夏里边还有欧亚大陆的其余地点它由七个关键组成部分, 陆上
“涤纶之路经济带” (SREB) 和远洋 “海上棉布之路” (MSR)
与战略安插宣布于二零一五年。 自那时以来,
已在这一倡议中支付了无数划算带和道路基本、研商所、出版物、网站和内阁分支机构。中国梦想树立一个新的经济区,
从中国, 包涵持有的国度在亚欧大陆组成的东盟成员国, 印度的亚欧国家,
香港合营协会的成员国,中东南非国家, 西亚国家, 北美洲和东非的一有的。
它概括大致所有重点的众人经济实体 (除去美洲, 澳大佛罗伦萨和新西兰, 西非,
南韩和扶桑等与米利坚涉嫌密切的经济体)。

The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road,
also known as The Belt and Road (B&R) is a development strategy and
framework, proposed in 2013 by Xi Jinping that focuses on connectivity
and cooperation among countries primarily between the China and the rest
of Eurasia. It composes of two main components, the land-based “Silk
Road Economic Belt” (SREB) and oceangoing “Maritime Silk Road” (MSR)
with a strategic plan issued in 2015. Since then, numerous Belt and Road
centres, institutes, publications, web sites and Government branches
have been developed on this initiative. In a nut shell, China wants to
create a new economic zone that spans from China to include all the
countries on the Eurasian continents comprising of ASEAN member nations,
Indian Sub continent countries, SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization)
member nations, countries of MENA (Middle East North Africa), West Asian
countries, Europe and part of East Africa. It includes almost ALL of the
major global economic entities minus Americas, Australia and New
Zealand, West Africa, Korea and Japan –political economic powers that
traditionally closely linked with USA .

从地缘政治的角度来看, 中国对欧亚大陆的震慑,
平昔是自美利坚联邦合众国撤离阿富汗/伊拉克和苏联差异以来的一个权力真空,
以抵消弥利坚在亚太地区 re-asserting 的震慑。越发是自在此此前米国总统政党。 别的,
中国选择经济而非军事或知识能力作为万有重力的主干,
因为贸易–而非战争–历来是南美洲重大的区域间纽带。别的,
中国脚下在包罗钢铁、水泥、技能劳动力等的根基设备领域的顶天立地产能过剩,
要求找到出路,
利用其它地方的经济可不断的中央构造在华夏正达到饱和点投资具有合理的经济回报。其余,
中国本身在经济成就上的成功–即经济腾飞而不加害其政治意识形态和结构–可能是诸多国度的政治领导人的一个迎接情势。

From a geopolitical perspective, China pivots its influence on Eurasian
Continent, hitherto a power vacuum since US withdrawal from
Afghanistan/Iraq and the collapse of USSR, to counter balance US
influence which is re-asserting in the Asia Pacific region especially
since the Obama Administration. Furthermore, China utilizes economic
rather than military or cultural power to service as the centre of
gravitation as trade–rather than war–has historically been the major
inter-regional bonds in Asia. Also China’s current huge overcapacity in
infra-structure sector, including steel, cement, skill labour and
expertises, needs to find means to utilize elsewhere economic
sustainable infrastructures in China are reaching a saturation point as
further investment with have few justifiable economic returns.
Furthermore, China’s own success in economic achievement–economic
development without compromise its political ideology and structure–may
be an welcoming model for political leaders in many B&R countries.

那毕生机盎然的经济圈涵盖了一些 mindstaggering 的数额: 它概括60多少个国家, 63%
的五洲人口 (44亿), 24% 满世界经济, 和30% 的众人 GDP。 中国考虑,
将改为人类历史上最大的贸易畅通格局,
是人类文明中最大的交通系统和交易有关品种,
也是当先最广范围的最大的总体经济网络。分裂的社会-种族和政治实体。由于多数的国家仍居于发展阶段,
仍有丰硕的空中释放他们的经济潜力;如果是那样的话,
它很可能是本世纪最要紧的经济前行计划,
因为中国在过去30年的经济奇迹。尽管是由于种族、宗教和野史由来,
包蕴了重重敌对群体–孔雀之国(佛教、穆斯林,孔雀王朝)和巴基斯坦、犹太人(伊斯兰教)和阿拉伯人、伊朗(波斯王朝)和阿拉伯世界(伊斯兰)等,
而且往往是区域争论的闪点, 就像是近来的叙新奥尔良和 ISIS 的情况亦然,
中国犹如孵化的成功的 B&R
倡议的借使共赢的商业利益通过交易可以战胜甚至超越的出入,
导致一个由许多两样的国度和集体平时由商业和贸易联系组成和谐和强盛的 B&R
区。中国将不得不投入多量的本钱投资, 面临风险, 因为在SREB/MSR
的征途上,有不可胜言易受加害的地点和瓶颈点,
并期望有可能出现低照旧负的投资回报, 因为众多 B & R 国家是惊人 challenged
地点为社会经济前行。中国对一石二鸟实力当先文化历史差距的设想的乐观态度的基本功,
似乎是按照中国自身在社会主义背景下发出的经济成功的经历,
那是不够教派作为社会政治因素.那项中国打响的花色, 在那么些宗教是重点的,
即使不是决定社会因素的地段, 还有待检验。

This B&R co-prosperity economic circle contains some mindstaggering
data: it includes 60+ nations, 63 % of global population (44 Billion),
24% Global economy, and 30% of global GDP. China envisions that B&R will
become the largest trade thru-way in human history, the largest
infra-structure in transport system and trade related projects in human
civilization, and the biggest integrative economic network that span
through the widest spectrum of diverse socio-ethnic and political
entities. Since most of the nations in B&R are still in developing
stage, there are still plenty of rooms to unleash their economic
potentials; should that be the case, it may well be the most significant
economic development plan in this Century, after China’s economic
miracles during the past three decades. Even though B&R regions includes
many rival groups due to ethnic, religious and historical reasons–India
and Pakistan, Jews and Arabs, Iran and the Arab world…etc., and are
often flash points of regional conflicts, as in the current case of
Syria and ISIS, China seems to hatch the success of the B&R initiative
on the assumption the win-win commercial interests through trades can
overcome and even transcend differences between rival regional fractions
leading to a harmonious and prosper B&R region composed of many
different nations and groups commonly bonded by commercial and trade
ties. China will have to put in large amount of capital investment, to
face high risk as there many vulnerable spots and bottle necks points
along the SREB/MSR paths, and to expect the possible of low and even
negative investment returns as many of the B&R countries are highly
challenged places for socio-economic developments. China’s basis on an
assumed optimism of B&R initiative on economic power to override
cultural-historical difference seemed to be based on China’s own
experience in economic success happening within a socialist context
which lacks religion as a socio-political factor. Such project of
China’s success onto B&R region where religions are an major, if not
dominating social factor, is yet to be tested.

是因为 B 和 R
贸易节点正在建立并通过贸易媒介、高速列车、机场、现代口岸和电信系统进行连接,
将有广大现有的镇子进步为紧要的国际贸易中央;那些基本将通过贸易和劳务,
将数十或几十个连接起来, 作为经济基础结构来作育这一个 B 和 R
球体。那些新的都市将有以下职能: 提供设施, 以增强国际贸易, 如运输, 物流,
金融, 数据, 银行, 会计, 翻译, 法律服务等,
并在同一时间成为区域要旨发展辐射影响在周围的区域。
那个都会将不可避免地吸引来自 B 和 R
社区及其余地域的正儿八经标准人士提供各个劳动。其它,
那么些城市的外籍人员也将逐步确立起来, 例如, 中国自35年前先导对外开放以来,
在上海和曼谷日渐确立了国际侨民。除了那么些外籍人员社区之外,
还索要为他们随同家人提供常备服务,
如高校、商店、娱乐场馆、餐馆、诊所和宗教场合, 以满足她们的切切实实须求,
以便有一个祥和的外籍社区匡助更加多的区域间贸易服务。

As the B&R trading nodes are building up and are connecting by trade
vectors, high speed trains, airports, modern harbours and
telecommunication systems, there will be the upgrading of many existing
towns or cities into major international trading hubs; these hubs will
number several tens or dozens interconnected through trades and services
as the economic infrastructure to shape this B&R sphere. These new
cities will have the following functions: provide facilities to enhance
international trading such as transport, logistics, finance, data,
banking, accounting, translation, legal services …etc. and at the same
time become the centre of regional development radiating influence in
surrounding areas. These cities will inevitable draw specialized
professionals from B&R communities and beyond to provide various
services. Also there will be a gradual build up of these B&R expats in
these cities such as the gradual building up of international expats in
Shanghai and Guangzhou when China began to open up since 35 years ago.
Along with these expat communities, there are need to provide daily
services to them as well as their dependents, such as school, shop,
recreation, restaurants, clinic and religious venues catering to their
specific needs in order to have a stable expat community to support the
increasing volumes of inter-regional trade services.

由于跨区域移徙, B 和 R 侨民社区猜度将扩充,
那个外籍社区和主人翁社会之间的动态互动将发生长远的文化-宗教影响。本文将对那种情景开展测算,
并估摸一些或者的结果。本文所用的基本如若有二种:
一是占便宜促进和牵动理论认为,
人类的迁移形式紧假若由经济能力营造的–经济条件较差的地域会促使人们离开富裕地区如若有更加多的空子收获更好的入账,
富裕地区将吸引大千世界来博取更好的经济机会和服务。 其次:
人是宗教影响和散播的主要活动主体,
大概所有的宗派传教活动。宗教内容要求通过信徒的化身来表述,
以一种真实的法子来传达宗教的信息, 以吸引新的信教者,
因为宗教不仅仅是一套法学思想, 而是一种生活方法, 需求在生命形式。第三:
由于传教士可能会挑衅当地的宗教信仰体系,
像传教士工作这么的特有传教活动或者会加剧社会知识紧张。 无意的布道,
如海外侨民社区的留存等宗教信仰的低沉证人,
只要这一部落不打乱东道社会方今的社会宗教动态,
就可以牵动社会容忍和七种性。 基于这么些若是, 本文指出, “B 和 R”
倡议将迎来一个更具教派三种性的条件, 扩充宗教间的烦乱关系,
并挑衅中国对商业利益的假诺, 那将顶替了区域间的野史、文化和宗教差距,
经济纽带可以打败社会-宗教紧张关系, 那是华夏领导所怀有的传统观念。不过,
最初的钻研已经肯定地申明, 穆斯林极端主义者是由意识形态造成的,
而不是经济上的–贫穷–原因。 中国对繁荣和谐的经济开发区的愿景,
可能会因特定语境下教派动态的复杂性而发出一般的长短不一和相对的结果。随着满世界政治秩序的缕缕波动,
b 和 r 倡议可能需求平常举办主要调整中国境内的有关移民

With the projected increase of B&R expat communities due to
inter-regional migration, there will be profound cultural-religious
implications between the dynamic interactions of these expat communities
and hosting societies. This paper will speculate on such scenario and
conjecture on some of the possible outcomes. There are three basic
presuppositions used in this paper: Firstly the economic push and pull
theory which suggests that that human migration patterns are largely
shaped by economic forces–areas with poor economic conditions will push
people to leave for rich areas where there are more opportunities for
better incomes, and rich areas will attract people to come for better
economic opportunities and services. Secondly: human being is the main
active agent for religious influences and transmission in almost all
religious proselytising activities. Religious content needs to be
expressed through the embodiment of the believers to convey the
religious message in an authentic way to attract new followers as
religion is more than a set of philosophical ideas but rather a way of
live that needs to be demonstrated in a life form. Thirdly: Intentional
proselytising activities such as missionary work may contribute to the
escalation of socio-cultural tensions as missionaries may challenge the
local religious believe system. Unintentional proselytising such as
passive witness of religious faith like the presence of an expat
community may promote social tolerance and diversities so long as this
group does not upset the current socio-religious dynamics of the hosting
society. Based on this these presuppositions, this paper suggests that
the B&R initiative will usher in a more religious diversity environment,
increase inter and intra religious tensions, and challenge the China’s
assumptions on commercial interests that would supersede inter-regional
historical, cultural and religious differences, and that economic ties
can overcome social-religious tensions, a conventional belief held by
Chinese policy makers. However, initial researches have already strongly
suggested that Muslim extreme fundamentalists are caused more by
ideological than by economic–poverty–reasons. China’s vision of a
prosper and harmonious B&R economic zone may general mix and perhaps
opposing consequences depending on the complexity of the religious
dynamics of a particular context. With the increase fluctuating of
global political order, B&R initiative may need constant major
readjustment B&R related Migrants within China

The economic push and pull factors in human migration has well been
documented in China as more than 150 million China’s internal migrants
are moving form mostly impoverished homeland to prosper regions, from
rural areas to urban cities, and from regional cities to metropolitans,
to seek better economic opportunities. Similar patterns are also
observed in Eurasia as migrant workers such as Filipinos in Gulf States,
Indonesians in Hong Kong, Turkish in Germany, or Vietnamese in Taiwan.
Almost all of these migrants are induced by higher incomes in hosting
nations than in their home countries. The flows are often dynamic
responding to economic changes. For example, as China’s rural areas are
improving in economic opportunities since about five years ago, there
has been a decrease in flow of rural population into the Pearl Delta
areas for factory works, and increase flow of population to the second
tier cities as economic tempo is picking up in those cities while the
major urban canters are slowing down the developmental pace. With the
B&R initiatives, one may expect those cities and regions in China
directly benefitted by B&R will attract domestic skilled labours and
professionals from all over China building up B&R related projects.
Those cities will mostly be the Southern coastal provinces and
South-western boarding provinces for the Maritime Belt and the
North-western Provinces for the Silk Road as illustrated shown by the
following picture

http://www.postwesternworld.com/2015/03/10/chinas-pivot-eurasia/
As for domestic migrants, they will mostly be specialized professionals
engaging in trade, commerce, logistic, telecommunication, finance and
transports, as most of these B&R gateway cities, such as those on
Maritime harbour port cities and bordering region cities, will serve as
commercial and transport hub from the China side for OBOR. There may
perhaps be many construction works for building of infrastructures such
as railway and ports, but these construction workers will leave once the
constructions are completed and not leaving any long-term
socio-religious impacts. However the commercial related domestic
professionals drawn from all over the nation, along with their
dependants, will probably stay on to keep these commercial hubs in
function. These internal migrant professionals will most likely be drawn
from major international commercial centres in China such as Shanghai,
Shenzhen and Beijing, where a vast pool of skilled professionals are
readily available.
The second major pool of migrants will be those expats related with B&R
countries. One may expected to see increasing expat populations from
ASEAN countries aggregated in Yunnan, Central and West Asians in
Xinjiang, Central Europeans in Xian, and many others such as Russians,
Iranians, Thais, Indians, Turks, Hungarians..etc. in cities where trade
opportunities are available. Just as one had seen the gradual building
up of Japanese, American and European expat communities in Shanghai and
Beijing when China began the trading with the West since 25 years ago,
and the increase of Korean expat in Northeast China as China-Korean
trade increases. This group of B&R will significantly increase the
international dimension as well as representation of the current expats
in China who are predominantly represented by Westerners (American,
European, Australians) Japanese and Korean.The third group of new
migrants may perhaps be the professionals drawn from overseas Chinese
population as many of them speak Chinese and come from the Chinese
Diaspora communities; and perhaps most may be drawn from the vast pool
of Mainland students who had studies and worked in overseas with
international trading experience and are now seeking opportunities back
in China. They may have a variety of residency or citizenship along with
different relational contacts in China. They are neither entirely
foreigners nor local Chinese and often form their own overseas returnee
communities in China. May have Chinese nationals as spouses and often
may not be part of the expat community of their citizenship.

B&R migrants in China: religious dynamics and interactions

All three groups will have their different cultural-religious values and
interact with local society in various ways. For the first group of
migrants from major commercial Chinese cities, they carry new ideas and
secular values to these mostly second tier cities which are more
traditional and conservative in social values. For example, a Shanghai
accountant will carry with him or her not only the international
auditing standard, but also the social cultural that favours
international commercial activities such as meritocracy than despotism,
gender equality or liberal gender relations. Strain in cultural
difference will be an growing edge for those hosting cities to strive
for development. The potential religious tension would mostly likely be
in Muslim dominated areas of the North Western regions where Islamic
influence are strong to perhaps oppose non Islamic social values such as
the more casual gender relations popular in coastal regions of China
where Western cultural influence are strongest. Should that be the case,
these Muslim dominated areas in North-western part of China would have
to embrace a more diverse society including the acceptances of the more
liberal social values which may contradict the traditional Islamic
social values in order to sustain the B&R operation on China side. Or
some of the Muslims will find these new domestic migrants as a threat
challenging their traditional religious values, and may find various
means to oppose such new incursion of social values leading to social
unrest.
As for the second group, regardless of where they come from, they will
usually bring along with them their own religious culture into the new
hosting Chinese cities which are officially secular or non-religious, as
B&R region contains the majority of the worlds’ Muslim, Buddhist ,
Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrian as well as the Orthodox
Christian populations. It is also a place where most of the world’s
relgions are originated. Just as the Muslim traders since the 8th
Centuries built up the Muslim community in Asia for generations, these
new B&R expat communities will stay in those gateway Chinese cities for
prolong period of time necessity for trade . They will bring with them
their dependents, their religious practice and their life styles. A
recent example will be the large expat Muslim communities in Yiwu along
with their own schools, shops, mosques and Arabic speaking community.
These Chinese B&R related cities will have to learn to make provisions
for these new communities along with their perhaps exotic religious
practices. It will be an eye opener for many local Chinese who has
little exposure to world religions and some Chinese may even be drawn as
devotees of these religions, just like many in US and Europe are drawn
into Hari Krishna or the Unification Church (the Moonies) in the 1960s
and 1970s.

There is also a high possibility that the new B&R expat groups in China
may also escalate the already strained inter-ethnic relations, such as
the Turkish merchants in Uyghur dominated Xinjiang may promote the
pan-Turkic sentiment which will indirectly lend support to the East
Turkistan Independent Movement challenging the sovereign claim of China
over Xinjiang. Similarly the Jingpo or Dai expat from Myanmar in Yunnan
may bring along with them their own ethnic-political complications from
the tension between Shan or Kachin Autonomous States with the Myanmar
authorities into China which may further destabilizing the already
fragile China border regions with Myanmar and Laos. After all, the
Jingpo ethnic minorities in Yunnan often identify themselves with their
ethnic Jingpo (Kachin) across the border sharing common language,
tradition and religions for centuries; many Jingpo people in China also
serves in the Kachin Independent Army in Myanmar. One can find many of
such examples as many of China’s ethnic minorities have strong ties with
their ethnic counterparts across the China border with increasing
autonomous or ethno-nationalistic sentiments often enhanced by religion.

For the last major group–Chinese overseas returnees, contemporary
research by Yang Fenggang suggested that a high percentage, as much as
30%, of them seemed to embrace Christian faith while they were living
aboard. Such high percentage of Protestant converts among the returnees
are also cause the increasing number of non-registered urban churches
established in major Chinese cities patron by these Chinese returnees.
Many hold foreign citizenship or residency and technically not Chinese
citizens and are in rather grey areas in terms of religious
administration by the Chinese authorities as they may have spouse who
are not foreign passport holders yet they may worship together in a
technically religious venue for foreigners, and often not formally
registered. Contrary to many of the local non-registered groups by
national are often harassed by local authorities, these new urban based
non-registered Christian groups are supported by rich and powerful
patrons who are well connected not only with senior authorities but also
international religious and commercial networks who serves as a
political umbrella to protest these groups from harassments by local
authorities. Their presence may easily cause socio-religious tension as
their religious gatherings may draw many Chinese, often colleagues or
business partners of these religious returnees, to join Christianity,
and some local Christians may be drawn to these powerful elite
communities for protection from harassment by the authority. If that
will be the case, there will be some forms of Foreign Concession zone in
China’s religion landscape, envy by national Christian groups and
resented by local authorities–a situation that the authority may need
to address in future.

Intra B&R migrations: religious dynamics and interactions

As mentioned earlier in this paper, B&R region contains the largest
population of many important world and ethnic religions. Although China
may be the least religious nation, almost all other B&R nations are very
religious with some even embrace religious values as their national
policies, such as the case of Indonesia and Iran. Also there is a
growing tend to have increasing religious influences to foster national
or ethnic identity especially towards the more conservative branches on
national governance and identity, such as in the case of Turkey of
escalating Turkic identity, India of increasing Hinduism as national
identity, Orthodox belief as the de facto Russian national identity, to
name a few. There are also the emergence of extreme religious groups
imposing religious rules political governance, such as the Taliban
movement and the ISIS. Therefore, with the increasing intra B&R migrant
populations, one would expect the new socio-religious challenges from
B&R expats to various hosting B&R nations. These challenges may range
from merely amusement of observing exotic religious practices by the
locals in a tolerance society, to offensive behaviours in the eyes of
the locals, such polytheistic images and worships in a puritanical
religious society such as Hinduism practice in Saudi Arabia, to
escalation of inter-regional rivals, such as Iranian Shiite in
predominate Sunni’s in UAE.
Also some of the interregional tensions, especially those involved with
already tensed ethnic and religious revival between countries such as
Iran and Saudi Arabia, or Pakistan and India, may also be escalated
through the presence of rival expat communities, as these countries are
competing for regional influence in political, religious and in ethnic
dominancy. Social tension may also increase as the presence of some
expat communities could empower, even unintentionally, local minority
groups to challenge the ruling regime, such as Iranian merchants may
encourage the Shiite in Yemen Shiites to oppose the Sunni ruling tribes,
the Kurds in Turkey, the Tamils in Sir Lanka…etc. There are also the
rise religious identity overshadowing national boundaries such as the
co-ordinated demonstrates of Muslims in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and
Thailand on 25th November, 2016 to support their co-religious Rohingya
in Myanmar.
Currently there are already countless religious-ethnics flash points in
Eurasian Continent, with many dated back for centuries, which are
currently accentuated by the rise of religious fundamentalism mixed with
emergence of nationalism or ethno-centrism. The basic tenet of B&R
co-prosperity sphere is based on the assumption that trade and
commercial interests will override and even overcome the traditional
religious-ethnic tension among rival groups or rival nations. However
often one observe just the opposite in B&R regional rivals is taken
place, such as Israel and the surrounding Arab nations, or
India-Pakistan in Kashmir, that these intensive conflicts are contrary
to any sound economic reasoning. It seems that this China led B&R
initiative could bring socio-political harmony to this ancient Eurasian
land through trade and economic development, or may usher in an new era
of conflict intensification by inter-mixing rival groups is yet to be
seen.

Intentional proselytising may escalate inter-religious tensions

Traditional many religions in Asia spreads first through merchants and
then missionaries through trade routes as in the case of Islam’s
spreading to Asia.

There is also a similar pattern in the case of Christianity via Silk
Route in 7th Century to China, or the Sea Route since the 16th Centuries
from Europe to Asia. Also sees the spreading of Manichaeism and
Zoroastrianism from East Asian to China via the Silk Route by both
merchants and religious personnel. Buddhism spread from India to China,
and from China to Korea and Japan, through well established trade routes
developed by inter-regional Buddhist traders. The common scenario was
that as some expat merchants took resident in hosting society, they
brought along with them their religion, be it Christianity or Buddhism.
Such religion caught the curiosity and attention of local inhabitants
and some may drawn to the new religion. As this new religious community
grew in size, with increase in trade hence traders and their dependents,
this community would call for some professional clergies back home to
provide religious formation and instruction for continuous religious
observance. For example, when the Arabic speaking Muslim communities
reached a certain size in Indonesia, they invited Imams back home mainly
to maintain their religious observance especially to their younger
generation than to proselytise others. Eventually, the more zealous
members would actively promote their religion to others, and gradually
professional religious proselytisers (missionaries) are involved in
spreading of this new religion. In the case of Marco Polo, his memories
on China aroused interests of Catholic missionaries leading the eventual
Catholic mission movement from Europe to Asia. Historical evidence
suggest that merchants have been often the and unintentional
proselytiser and they served as precursor of missionaries who are
intentional proselytisers.
Currently there are already many proselytising activities taken within
the B&R regions, from Christians trying to convert believers from other
faiths, especially targeting the Muslims as an reaction to the 9/11
aftermath, to the more Fundamentalist Imams to promote the Wahabbi
branch of puritanical Islam, to Zen Buddhist monks to spread
contemporary Buddhist message targeting intellectuals and business
circles, or the Pentecostal pastors to advocate Charismatic movements
within Christianity. In fact, almost all religious groups are actively
conducting their proselyte activities in both inter-religious circles to
win believers to intra religious sphere to promote certain sects or
branches within a particular religion. It will be obvious for the
intentional proselytisers, regardless of their religious affiliation to
utilize whatever means to advance their missionary activities, such as
trade vectors like B&R.
B&R will provide a great opportunity to these intentional proselytisers
as B&R will established a free-flow inter-connected network in trades,
good, services, finances, data and personnel within this huge region.
Proselytisers will take advantage of this network of trade route,
tagging along with merchants just they had done in the past, to spread
their religious messages to whatever places along the B&R trade routes.
Therefore B&R will greatly enhance the current intentional proselytising
activities, as well as to develop new mission field as B&R will enhance
accessibility to regions hitherto not easily reached by outsiders. In
fact there has already been mission works from Christian groups, many
from non-registered sectors in China, by sending Chinese Christian
missionaries to Central and East Asian to convert the Muslim
populations, and B&R will surely provide a great opportunity for these
mission groups to intensify such movement. From both the historical
evident and current religious dynamics, B&R will induce a more intensify
level of inter-regional proselyte activities escalating the
socio-religious tension of the region and perhaps complicated the
already delicate inter-regional political relations.

参考资料

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/

http://zh.unesco.org/silkroad/network-silk-road-cities-map-app/zh

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天鹅绒之路(Silk Road)1

天鹅绒之路是什么?

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那条东西通路,将中国、西域与阿拉伯、白令海紧密联系在一道。

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涤纶之路(波兰语:die
Seidenstrasse),简称为丝路,最早来自德意志联邦共和国地法学家费迪南·冯·李希霍芬
(Ferdinand von Richthofen)1877年问世的《中国——我的旅行成果》(China,
Ergebnisse eigener Reisen)。
丝绸之路平日是指欧亚西部的商路,与南边的茶马古道形成相比,西魏时博望侯和唐代时班仲升出使西域开辟的以长安(今马普托)、银川为起源,经黑龙江、湖北,到中亚、西亚,并联合卡奔塔利亚湾各国的新大陆通道。那条道路也被誉为“陆路天鹅绒之路”,以分别日后别的两条冠以“天鹅绒之路”名称的交通路线。因为由这条路西运的货物中以丝绸制品的震慑最大,故得此名。其主干走向定于两汉时期。
广义的天鹅绒之路指从上古最先陆续形成的,遍及欧亚大陆甚至席卷北非和东非在内的远程商业贸易和文化沟通线路的总称。除上述路线之外,还包含约前5世纪形成的草地涤纶之路,中古初年形成,在东汉发挥巨大成效的水道棉布之路和与东南天鹅绒之路同时出现,在宋初代表东北涤纶之路成为旅途交换通道的西边天鹅绒之路。
虽说天鹅绒之路是沿线各国共同推进经贸发展的产物,但为数不少人认为,中国的张子文一次出使西域,开辟了海内外互换的新纪元。从此,那条路线就改成了“国道”,各国大使、商人沿着博望侯开通的道路,进行贸易。那条东西通路,将中国、西域与阿拉伯、德雷克海峡紧密联系在同步。经过多少个百年的持续努力,天鹅绒之路向北伸展到了北海。广义上丝路的东段已经到达了南韩、日本,西段至法国、荷兰王国。通过海路还可达意国、阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt),成为澳大利亚联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)和南美洲、欧洲各国经济文化沟通的友情之路。

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涤纶之路是历史上横贯欧亚大陆的贸易交通线,在历史上促进了欧亚非各国和中华的友好往来。

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远古一时,在恒河流域、两河流域、印度河流域和黄河流域之北的草野上,有着一线由众多不连贯的小圈圈交易路线大体衔接而成的草原之路。这点曾经被沿路诸多的考古发现所验证。这条路就是最早的涤纶之路的雏形。
早期的涤纶之路上并不是以丝绸为重大交易物资,在公元前15世纪左右,中国商贾就曾经出入塔克拉玛干沙漠边缘,购买产自现西藏地区的和田玉石,同时售卖海贝等沿海特产,同中亚地区展开小范围贸易往来。而良种马及其他符合长途运输的动物也早先持续被稠人广众所使用,令广大的交易文化交换成为可能。比如阿拉伯半岛的平时利用,耐渴、耐旱、耐饿的单峰骆驼,在公元前11世纪便用于饭店运输。而分散在亚欧大陆的雅利安人和斯基泰人据传在公元前31世纪左右即开头饲养马。双峰骆驼则在不久后也被选取在买卖旅行中。此外,欧亚大陆内地是周边的草野和肥沃的土地,对于游牧民族和商队运输的牲畜而言能够随时遍地安定下来,就近补给水、食品和燃料。那样一支商队、旅行队或武装可以在沿线各强国没有留神到她们的存在或激发敌意的情况下,举行旷日持久,持久而路途遥远的远足。

1、月氏:(yuèzhī或ròuzhī)为公元前3世纪至公元1世纪一个民族名称。早期以游牧为生,住在今中国的青海就地,并平常与匈奴暴发冲突,到新兴被匈奴攻击,一分为二:西迁至伊犁的,被称之为大月氏;居留于中华云南及山西的祁连湖南南麓一带的,被喻为小月氏。那时,月支初阶发展,逐步具有国家的雏型。由于大月氏位处于涤纶之路,控制着东西贸易,使它逐步变得强大。《东汉书•西羌传》记载:月氏“被服饮食言语略与羌同”,表明月氏的语言很可能属于汉印度语印尼语系。

2、祆(xiān)教:即琐罗亚斯德教是风靡于古时候波斯(今伊朗)及中亚等地的宗派,中国史称祆教、火祆教、拜火教。相传为公元前六世纪琐罗亚斯德创。波斯萨珊王朝奉为国教。其教创善、恶二元论,以火为善神的象征。南北朝时传入中国后又称“火祆教”或“祆教”。北周曾一度于长安建祠盛行,并立官专管。
武宗反佛后渐废不传。琐罗亚斯德教是伊斯兰教诞生此前中东和西亚最有影响的宗教,西楚波斯帝国的国教,曾被伊斯兰教徒贬称为“拜火教”。琐罗亚斯德教的福音一般认为是神学上的一神论和军事学上的二元论。琐罗亚斯德教的经典首如若《阿维斯塔》,意为知识、谕令、或经典,通称《波斯古经》。

关于丝绸之路

简介
人类历史在时时刻刻搬迁中升高,随之爆发的是屡屡的商品交流,以及技术和探究的交换。那样的通信与交易之路在欧亚大陆上复杂,在历史上逐步形成了俺们前些天所称的丝绸之路。棉布之路覆盖着路上和海上交通,来自种种地点的芸芸众生在此沿线进行着丝绸与其余货品的交易。海上丝路将东方与天堂以航线连接起来,是广义上的丝绸之路的关键组成部分。海上之路曾经是交易香料的首要性渠道,后来被人们以香水之路而掌握。
而是这些庞然大物的互连网承载的不只是货物的交易。频仍的移动和人口的搅和引起了知识、思想、文化和信仰的调换,给亚欧人的野史和知识牵动了远大的熏陶。在沿线城市上如此的想想文化沟通不断开拓进取,渐渐形成了五个教育与知识主题,吸引着行客们踏上这条商路。自然科学、艺术、法学以及手工艺和技巧在此地被分享与传播。随之,语言、宗教和学识也在分级发展中互相发生了震慑。
实在“丝绸之路”只是现代的一种叫法。在其长期的历史中,那条古老的道路并不曾一个正好的名字。十九世纪中期,德意志联邦共和国数学家,费迪南·冯·李希霍芬,把这一个商道命名为Die
Seidenstrasse (棉布之路),神秘且令人浮想联翩。

棉布的营造与交易
棉布是将蚕茧中领取的蛋白纤维编织而制成的纺织品。涤纶构建技巧来源于西夏中国,公元前约两千七百年。作为价值极高的手工制品,天鹅绒被中国宫廷保留为御用服装、家纺、横幅以及其余外交赠品。广东省发现的公元前三到四世纪的古墓里出土了一批优质的绸缎,包蕴锦缎,纱和绢绣,以最古老的总体的丝制时装。
丝绸的生产进度被严俊保密了约三千年。当时朝廷对民用向旁人败露天鹅绒生产进度的责罚是死缓。中国在制丝业上的独占并没有使其消费市场局限于中国。一方面,涤纶作为外交贡品流入他国。另一方面,涤纶贸易也直接格外频仍:开始仅是向邻国销售,而后推广到更远的国家。到吴国(公元前206年到公元220年)时,涤纶已改成了中国的首要性出口产品。近期阿拉伯埃及共和国、北蒙古等地都出土了中华在汉时期的纺织品。
公元前一世纪,丝绸传入慕尼帝颛顼国。涤纶被视为颇具异国风情的奢侈品而变得极为流行,甚至使得赫尔辛基帝国颁发诏令以控制其标价。天鹅绒的风行一向被接续到中世纪。当时天鹅绒既是皇家使用的卓著面料,也是财政的关键来源。拜占庭对于天鹅绒打造的从严法令规定也反映了天鹅绒的特殊地点。其它,拜占庭教堂对于丝制衣饰与室内装饰要求也不行大。由此,棉布成为了亚洲至远东的商路发展的初期引力之一。
有关制丝技术的文化在即时是格外宝贵的。即便中国朝廷竭力保密制作方法,这几个隐秘仍然在炎黄外传出开来。在公元前6世纪,此项技艺率先流传到了印度和扶桑,接着传播到波斯王国,最终到天国。在公元6世纪,历文学家普罗科匹厄斯描述道:大概在同一期间
[公元前550年],印度的有的高僧来到了奥克兰帝国。他们说服了查士丁尼大帝开普敦不该再从波斯购入丝绸,并达到了她们从中国带回到的养蚕缫丝的技巧传授给布加勒斯特的订立,以便奥克兰其后驳回从其敌国波斯或者其余任何国家购买棉布。那个僧侣们说从前她们在一个印度人时常到访的地点,Serinda,完全精晓了创设丝绸的方法。其余,僧侣们对不断追问试探他们的国王说,蚕是天鹅绒的制小编,大自然在促使他们绵绵创设涤纶。虽说不能一贯将火蚕运输过来,可是蚕的养殖却很不难。一批蚕卵可以孵化出无数只幼虫,而芸芸众生只需在孵化后用粪便盖住幼虫作为保暖,直至它们成长为成虫。僧侣们分享了那几个音讯之后,他们与太岁落成了预约并赶回了印度。当她们将蚕卵带回拜占庭,教其上述养殖格局,将蚕卵孵化成幼虫,以树叶来喂养。赫尔辛基帝国的制丝艺术之路就此起先。

天鹅绒之外:棉布之路商品的多种性
就算如此天鹅绒贸易是中亚商道的最早的催化剂之一,那只是是东、西方之间贸易的宽泛商品中的一类。其他货物包罗涤纶之外的纺织品、调味品、粮食、蔬菜和鲜果、动物皮草、工具、木工、五金、宗教物品、艺术品、宝石等等。
在中世纪,天鹅绒之路开始风靡,人们的过往越多,直至19世纪,人们还在采取那条商道。那不光表明丝绸之路的要害,还证实其弹性和适应性可以满意不断开拓进取变迁的社会须要。那几个商道也并没有沿着任何特定道路

商人们频仍自由选择通向东欧、中东、中亚地区和远东多少个地区的不等交通路线。除陆路之外,商人们还可以够选拔从中华和东南亚,经由太平洋到澳国、印度和近东的海上天鹅绒之路。
综观历史,依照时间的延迟和地缘政治环境的转移,丝绸之路也直接向上。例如,奥斯陆帝国的商户们为了避让经过布加勒斯特之敌区帕提亚领土,选拔了向北出发,经过高加索地区,途经拉克代夫海的路径。相似地,中世纪初期,频仍的买卖往来发生在横跨中亚的河道运输网上。与此同时,那条河道中的水位时而上涨时而下落,有时干涸,那条交易之路也应和的转换。
海上贸易是立时另一个极其首要的社会风气贸易互联网。其最盛名的用处是香料运输,来自印尼摩鹿加群岛(以香料岛之名而饮誉)的奇兰、胡椒、姜、丁香和豆蔻需要全世界市场。故海上天鹅绒之路又被称作‘香料之路’。商人经由涤纶之路,交易纺织品、木制品、宝石、金属制品、香料、木材和藏红花。天鹅绒之路当先十五万公里,从东瀛西海岸,经过中国海岸线、东东南亚和印度平素到中东和阿拉斯加湾。海上天鹅绒之路连接了阿拉伯半岛,美索不达米亚和印度河流域的,其历史足以追溯到几千年前。在中世纪初,来自阿拉伯半岛的海员们开发并了超越波斯湾直到印度洋的新航线,海上丝绸之路互连网也为此伸张。实际上,早在八世纪,阿拉伯与中华之内的海上贸易畅通已开头建立。
航海术、天经济学和造船术的发展已毕了长途的海上旅行。位于海上涤纶之路沿岸的城池因港口而恢宏起来,如桑给巴尔,亚历山大,马斯喀特,和果阿。那几个都会平常有来来往往的商贾和海员以及广大的集市,也是商品、思想、语言和信仰的交流的着力,因此成为了财富的会聚地。15世纪末期,葡萄牙共和国(República Portuguesa)探险家达伽马,在好望角四周航行,这是澳国船员初次参与东东南亚海上贸易。到了16、17
世纪,天鹅绒之路和它的净收入富厚的贸易成为了葡萄牙共和国(República Portuguesa)、荷兰王国和英帝国里边可以竞争的刀口。这几个殖民国家给他们攻克的海上之路沿岸港口带来了财富和有限协理。他们有效治理了海上贸易通道,授权当地权力机关对此急需巨大的舶来品的占据举办保管,并对准商船征收了大批的税款。
上边地图展现了各个不相同的大陆与海上商道。来自世界各省的商贾靠着这一个交通互连网运输交易着体系丰盛的货品。商人的驼队日常选拔在一部分路段停留。他们或稍作歇息、补充用品,或留下扎营做买卖。那样的停留点遍布整个天鹅绒之路,沿线城市和海港因此扶摇直上。
棉布之路既活跃又有渗透性。商人们与土著人做买卖,将外来商品卖给当地人的同时也购买并带走各省的土产品。天鹅绒之路不仅仅丰裕了经纪人的物质财富与货物的各类性,还促进了在天鹅绒之路上沿线的学问、语言、思想的交换。

交换与对话
想必在颇具的天鹅绒之路的角色中,最有历史意义的即其对两样地段的芸芸众生互相互换往来的促进作用。在执行层面上,商人们若要成功地进行谈判就必须学习他们所经国家的言语和乡规民约习惯。由此文化交换是物质调换的一个重点元素。此外,许多行客为了感受沿线城市的知识和文化互换而踏上了那条冒险之路。
横跨棉布之路的沿线区域分享了不利、艺术、管理学以及手工艺和技巧的学识。同时,语言、宗教和学识也在分其余前行中相互影响。通过天鹅绒之路在世界范围内取得传播的最知名的技能包含造纸术以及印刷术。类似地,由于得到了行客的求学和传颂,整个中亚地区的灌溉系统普遍拥有相似特性。这个行客不仅带走和散播自己的学问,同时也收到了差别社会的当地文化技艺。
在公元前2世纪,将军张子文开辟了第三个从中华至西方的天鹅绒之路。说起这位勇猛,比起贸易开拓者,他更是一位外交官。孝曹操在公元前139年,联盟国外,以抵御中国的祖传仇人—匈奴。博望侯被派向东部时,被匈奴抓获并被监管起来。十三年后,他越狱并逃回了中华,给汉武帝讲述了增长的经历及细节并做了一些详尽的告知。在公元前119年,孝曹操又派张子文拜访邻国,建立一个初期从中国到中亚的路径。
宗教和求知成为了芸芸众生沿线的远足的想法。到印度取经后将圣文带回中国的高僧们在旅途书写的远足日记,方今是有关天鹅绒之路的首要性考据。唐僧在629至公元到654年的25年以内写下的日记不仅所有伟大的历史价值,同时也启示了16世纪神魔随笔的出世。“西游记”,即那样一部中国太古的经文之作。在中世纪,澳大利亚(Australia)的僧人胜任外交和教派使团,访问西边。Giovanni
da Pian del Carpini在1245年至1247年由教皇Innocent
四世派出访问蒙古;随后,佛兰德方济各会修士威尔iam of
Rubruc在1253年至1255年由法国皇帝路易九世派出,再一次访问蒙古汗国。其中最闻名的应属威塔那那利佛探险家马可先生·波罗。他的骑行约于1271和1292里边,长达20多年。他粉身碎骨后其书写的游记在亚洲变得极受欢迎。
横跨所有欧亚大陆的不二法门是宗教的传遍基础。佛教是丝绸之路沿途上宗教传播一个事例。在阿富汗巴米扬、在华夏齐云山以及在印度尼西亚婆罗佛塔都留有伊斯兰教艺术圣地和寺观东正教,佛教,孔雀之国教,琐罗亚斯德教和一神教以一般的艺术传播。行客们接过他们所收受到的知识,并将这一个不相同的学问分享给自己的亲生。如此,印度教和道教被经纪人们经过海上天鹅绒之路从孔雀之国和阿拉伯引入到印尼和马来亚。

步履在天鹅绒之路上
天鹅绒之路本身的升高基于人们在其区域的畅通往来。在中世纪,马或骆驼是商队在陆路物流上的独立格局。天鹅绒之路上的商旅是越发为了大型长途旅行商队所设计的。这个客栈对于那条途径上人和货物的畅通发挥了最紧要的成效。通过对土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)到中华这一段天鹅绒之路的体察可得,这么些饭馆不仅为乘客提供了可口的饭食和平安的喘气地以为将来的行程做准备,同时也提供了与本地市场互换货物、贸易和采购位置产品并与其余商户们沟通的阳台,促进商户们相互调换文化、语言和切磋。
乘胜涤纶之路发展壮大,沿线的职业机会更进一步多。饭馆商旅日渐其需,从10世纪初步,饭馆商旅的建立遍布了全体中亚地区,一贯一而再至19世纪。这么些旅舍旅馆网,从中华延伸至印度次大陆、伊朗、高加索、土耳其共和国(The Republic of Turkey)、北非、俄联邦和东欧国家。其中一部分酒店饭馆至今尚存。酒馆宾馆的地点是依据丝绸之路上每一日的里程来分布的。这样商人和其它行客可以幸免数天数夜停留在危害重重的丝绸之路上,并有限支撑珍重货物的晋城。平均每30至40英里就会有一对宾馆商旅,周边环境维护较好。
历史上商户在长远的海上贸易旅程中面临着区其余挑衅。至中世纪以来,航海术,越发是造船术的上扬,提升了海上旅行的平安。在中世纪,对船员们最大的威慑之一就是缺少饮用水。海上沿线天鹅绒之路港口的上进,不仅为商贩贸易提供做买卖的时机,而且保障了淡水供应。商船所面临的另一种高危机是海盗。船上利润丰饶的货物往往变成海盗的目的。
棉布之路遗产
在19世纪,考古学家、地理学家以及部分热心肠的探险者踏上了天鹅绒的探险之路。来自法兰西共和国、英帝国、德意志联邦共和国、俄联邦和东瀛,这个切磋者通过中国北边,今位于海南的塔克拉玛干沙漠,沿着丝路追寻古迹。因他们的孝敬,如今有这几个考古学上的觉察和大度的学术研究。那个发现使得丝路之历史又重新唤起了世道的关爱。
现今,许多历史建筑和回忆碑、标志着丝路通道的酒店酒馆、港口和城市尚存。分化但互相关系的知识、语言、风俗和宗派在丝路上进步了上千年,恰是历史悠久的天鹅绒之路的映照。商人们及许多不一样国籍的观光客的来回来去不仅在商贸互换上,而且在知识融合的进程中,带来了持续并大面积的震慑。从初期的探索阶段伊始,丝绸之路渐渐变成横跨欧亚大陆上,促进社会的形成的推引力。

有关链接:
UNESCO Integral Study of the Silk Roads, Roads of
Dialogue

Recommendations for transnational heritage corridors of Silk Roads site
nomination

Caravanserais
History of civilizations of Central
Asia

China-B&R religious dynamics interactions.

The increase of Chinese expat merchant or commercial related communities
in B&R nations will also bring new socio-religious dynamics into these
nations. Although China is an non-religious nation, or having the
largest agnostic population in the world, and one can interprets that
there is no religious connotation as Chinese interact with nationals
from B&R region who are predominately religious. However, nationals of
B&R nations with strong religious sentiments may regards Chinese
merchants who are mostly secularists with secular values who will be
crash with local religious social values. It has been well documented
that some Chinese operate restaurants in Afghanistan are doubled as
brothels and served alcohols to local Muslim youth which infuriated
local Muslim communities. Similarly Chinese run bars and brothels in
Peshawar, Pakistan, for international communities yet were patron by
local Muslim youth which had already caused protests from local Mullahs
leading to the riots and casualties at the Red Mosque in 2007. Also the
perhaps hundreds of Chinese prostitutes in Dubai are currently tolerated
by local authorities so long as the customers are non Dubai national;
but there will come to a point of non-toleration if Dubai nations are
involved. It seems many countries were once welcomed Chinese merchants,
especially since the 1990s till the turn of the Century, are gradually
become ambivalence and even hostile toward Chinese merchants for their
generally profit oriented commercialism in lieu of religious sensitivity
to local culture and values. The prolong lack of religious knowledge and
contact among Chinese population becomes a liability when these secular
Chinese merchants with little religious understanding or sensitivity
encounter with people in societies where religion is an essential part
of the cultural milieu.
Furthermore, the aggressiveness of the Chinese merchants, along with
their usually short business cycles especially the small entrepreneurs,
are drawing increasing negative reception from many B&R countries, from
resentment towards the natural resource exploitation in Myanmar, to
disrespect local religious value (mostly Muslim dominated areas), to
insensitive to local customs such as in Thailand towards Buddhist
customs, and to cause the collapse of local industries such as plastic
manufactures in Morocco, are factors that contribute towards the
international resentments against Chinese presences leading to many
incidents of attacks and expulsion of Chinese expat merchants in recent
years from Kyrgyzstan to Vietnam—both are B&R nations. The State Owned
Enterprises Projects in B&R regions, usually conducting large scale
infrastructure project, are often operated in a hermitic compound with
virtually no social interaction with local communities and Chinese
managers and worker are rather naivety towards local religious customs.
Unless Chinese merchants will have a higher sensitivity on religious
cultural of B&R in general, one may expect that the will be an increase
of negative sentiments towards Chinese merchants in B&R region as
religious values seems to be valued over economic benefits observed from
populations in most of the B&Rs nations–a fact that had not been
appreciated by Chinese who are mostly non- religious and secular in
social values.

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