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Day 23: Words & Phrases Ⅰ

– strike

  1. (not used in the progressive tenses) (of a thought or an idea) to
    come into sb’s mind suddenly
  • An awful thought has just struck me.
  • I was struck by her resemblance to my aunt.
  • It suddenly struck me how we could improve the situation.
  1. ~ sb (as sth) to give sb a particular impression
  • His reaction struck me as odd.
  • How does the idea strike you?
  • She strikes me as a very efficient person.
  • It strikes me that nobody is really in favour of the changes.

– defile

A defile is a very narrow valley or passage, usually through

– crowd

  1. to fill a place so there is little room to move
  • Thousands of people crowded the narrow streets.
  1. to fill your mind so that you can think of nothing else
  • Memories crowded his mind.
  1. (informal) to stand very close to sb so that they feel
    uncomfortable or nervous

– perch

A perch is a temporary resting place. In the middle of climbing a
tree, you might find a good perch on a high branch. Bet some birds
will be perching there too. Perch has many different meanings. A
bird perch is a little stick it can balance on, and the armrest of
the couch can offer you a perch during a party. It’s also the name of
a kind of fish with spiny fins.

  1. [V] ~ (on sth) (of a bird) to land and stay on a branch, etc.
  • A robin was perching on the fence.
  1. ~ (sb / yourself) (on sth) (informal) to sit or to make sb sit
    on sth, especially on the edge of it
  • We perched on a couple of high stools at the bar.
  • She perched herself on the edge of the bed.
  1. [V] ~ (on sth) to be placed on the top or the edge of sth
  • The hotel perched precariously on a steep hillside.

– crag

a high steep rough mass of rock

  • a castle set on a crag above the village

– sustenance

Sustenance comes from the word sustain, which means to continue.
Sustenance is food or drink that allows you to continue to be
. For many, prayer is a source of spiritual sustenance.
If your chief source of sustenance is candy, you are going to get
sick, but you will have a good time while it lasts. In much of the
world, rice and beans provide sustenance to human beings. In the US,
Native Americans taught Europeans how to grow corn, which turned into
a major source of sustenance for their population.

– rival

~ sb / sth (for / in sth) to be as good, impressive, etc. as sb / sth
【SYN】 compare with

  • You will find scenery to rival anything you can see in the Alps.
  • This latest design has no rivals (= it is easily the best design
  • has no rivals or is without rival

– necessarily

used to say that sth cannot be avoided

  • The number of places available is necessarily limited.

【IDIOMS】 not necessarily
used to say that sth is possibly true but not definitely or always

  • The more expensive articles are not necessarily better.
  • Biggest doesn’t necessarily mean best.
  • ‘We’re going to lose.’ ‘Not necessarily.’
    “大家会输的。” “未必。”

– scanty

We refer to an amount or thing that is not quite enough as scanty,
or lacking. It’s an adjective used to describe something that
doesn’t offer enough
, as in “farmers having a scanty crop in a
drought year.”
The adjective scanty comes from the Old Norse scamt, which means
“short or brief,” and so suggests a small amount. The word usually
suggests a meager amount, and can refer to anything that is barely
sufficient. Someone trying to stretch a meal might offer scanty
servings. On a humorous note, a Roaring Twenties flapper referred to
her underwear as scanties.

– battle-ground

  1. a place where a battle is being fought or has been fought
  1. You can refer to an issue or field of activity over which people
    disagree or compete as a battleground.
  • //…the battleground of education…
  • Children’s literature is an ideological battleground.

– extent

the physical size of an area

  • You can’t see the full extent of the beach from here.
  • The region is over 10,000 square kilometres in extent.

– revolve around

  1. [not in progressive] to have something as a main subject or
  • Jane’s life revolves around her children.
  • The argument revolved around costs.
  • She seems to think that the world revolves around her (=that she
    is the only important person)
  1. to move in circles around something
  • The moon revolves around the Earth.

– alike

  1. in a very similar way
  • They tried to treat all their children alike.
  1. used after you have referred to two people or groups, to mean
    ‘both’ or ‘equally’
  • Good management benefits employers and employees alike.

– outpost

  1. a small military camp away from the main army, used for watching
    an enemy’s movements, etc.
  1. a small town or group of buildings in a lonely part of a country
  • a remote outpost
  • the last outpost of civilization

– highroad

  1. (old-fashioned) a main road
  1. take the (moral) high road to do what you believe is right
    according to your beliefs:
  • Daley has taken the high road in his campaign.

– seat

~ of sth (formal) a place where people are involved in a particular
, especially a city that has a university or the offices of
a government

  • Washington is the seat of government of the US.
  • a university town renowned as a seat of learning

– throw off

If you throw off something that is restricting you or making you
unhappy, you get rid of it.

  • //…a country ready to throw off the shackles of its colonial
  • One day depression descended upon him, and wherever he went after
    that he could never throw it off.

– yoke

(literary or formal) rough treatment or sth that restricts your
freedom and makes your life very difficult to bear

  • the yoke of imperialism

– spoil

  1. the spoils [pl.] (formal or literary) goods taken from a
    place by thieves or by an army that has won a battle or war
  1. spoils [pl.] the profits or advantages that sb gets from being
  • the spoils of high office

– contend

  1. (formal) to say that sth is true, especially in an argument

**【SYN】 maintain **

  • I would contend that the minister’s thinking is flawed on this
  1. ** ~ (for sth) ** to compete against sb in order to gain sth
  • Three armed groups were contending for power.

**【拓展】contend with sth **
to have to deal with a problem or difficult situation

  • Nurses often have to contend with violent or drunken patients.

– pharaoh

a ruler of ancient Egypt

– oriental

connected with or typical of the eastern part of the world,
especially China and Japan, and the people who live there

  • oriental languages

– occupation

the act of moving into a country, town, etc. and taking control of
it using military force
; the period of time during which a country,
town, etc. is controlled in this way

  • the Roman occupation of Britain
  • The areas under occupation contained major industrial areas.
  • occupation forces

– occupation

the act of moving into a country, town, etc. and taking control of
it using military force
; the period of time during which a country,
town, etc. is controlled in this way

  • the Roman occupation of Britain
  • The areas under occupation contained major industrial areas.
  • occupation forces

– people

[usually passive] ~ sth (with sth) to live in a place or fill it
with people

  • The town was peopled largely by workers from the car factory and
    their families.
  • The ballroom was peopled with guests.

– akin

~ to sth (formal) similar to

  • What he felt was more akin to pity than love.

– blood

You can use blood to refer to the race or social class of
someone’s parents or ancestors. [usu supp N]

  • There was Greek blood in his veins…
    她有希腊共和国(Ελληνική Δημοκρατία)血统。
  • He was of noble blood, and an officer.

– speech

  1. the way in which a particular person speaks
  • Her speech was slurred—she was clearly drunk.
  1. the language used when speaking
  • This expression is used mainly in speech, not in writing.
  • speech sounds

– tribe

(sometimes offensive) (in developing countries) a group of people of
the same race, and with the same customs, language, religion,
etc., living in a particular area and often led by a chief

Race can also mean genetic grouping. One of the main groups that
humans can be divided into according to their physical
, for example the colour of their skin

– notably

  1. used for giving a good or the most important example of sth
    【SYN】 especially
  • The house had many drawbacks, most notably its price.
  1. to a great degree
    【SYN】 remarkably
  • This has not been a notably successful project.

– descend from somebody / something

  1. be descended from somebody to be related to a person or group who
    lived a long time ago:
  • She claims to be descended from Abraham Lincoln.
  • The people here are descended from the Vikings.
  1. to have developed from something that existed in the past
    【SYN】come from
  • ideas that descend from those of ancient philosophers

– Taurus

  1. the second sign of the zodiac , the Bull
  1. [sing.] a person born under the influence of this sign, that is
    between 21 April and 21 May

【拓展】 Twelve Constellations

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– fling

to throw sb / sth somewhere with force, especially because you are
**【SYN】 hurl **:

  • Someone had flung a brick through the window.
  • The door was suddenly flung open.
  • He had his enemies flung into prison.

【拓展 】
■ fling yourself into sth
to start to do sth with a lot of energy and enthusiasm

  • They flung themselves into the preparations for the party.

■ fling sth∽off / on
to** take off or put on clothing** in a quick and careless way

  • He flung off his coat and collapsed on the sofa.

– admixture

Admixture means the same as mixture.

  • //…an admixture of fact and fantasy.

– conquest

  1. the act of taking control of a country, city, etc. by force
  • the Norman Conquest (= of England in 1066)
    Norman制服(即 拾6六 年Norman人克制United Kingdom)
  1. an area of land taken by force
  • the Spanish conquests in South America
  1. (usually humorous) a person that sb has persuaded to love them or to
    have sex with them
  • I’m just one of his many conquests.
  1. the act of gaining control over sth that is difficult or
  • the conquest of inflation

– Israelitish

adj. 犹太人的,希伯来人的,古以色列国(人)的
Israelite: a member of the ancient Hebrew nation described in the

– storm

If a place that is being defended is stormed, a group of people
attack it, usually in order to get inside it.

  • Government buildings have been stormed and looted…
  • The refugees decided to storm the embassy.

【拓展】 storming

  • //…the storming of the Bastille.

– massacre

  1. [n] the killing of a large number of people especially in a
    cruel way
  • the bloody massacre of innocent civilians
  • Nobody survived the massacre.
  1. (informal) a very big defeat in a game or competition
  • The game was a 10–0 massacre for our team.
    本场较量我们队以 0:拾 输球。
  1. [v.] to kill a large number of people, especially in a cruel
  2. (informal) to defeat sb in a game or competition by a high score

– intermingle

~ (A) (with B) | ~ A and B (formal) to mix people, ideas, colours,
etc. together; to be mixed in this way

  • The book intermingles fact with fiction.
  • The book intermingles fact and fiction.
  • tourists and local people intermingling in the market square

– captive

  1. kept as a prisoner or in a confined space; unable to escape
  • captive animals
  • They were taken captive by masked gunmen.
  • captive breeding (= the catching and breeding of wild animals)
  1. [only before noun] not free to leave a particular place or to
    choose what you want do to
  • A salesman loves to have a captive audience (= listening because
    they have no choice).
  1. [noun] a person who is kept as a prisoner, especially in a war

– surmount

  1. If you surmount a problem or difficulty, you deal successfully
    with it.
  • I realized I had to surmount the language barrier.
  1. If something is surmounted by a particular thing, that thing is on
    top of it.
  • The island is surmounted by a huge black castle.

– Jewish

connected with Jews or Judaism; believing in and practising Judaism

  • We’re Jewish.
  • the local Jewish community

– countenance

If someone will not countenance something, they do not agree with
it and will not allow it to happen.

  • Jake would not countenance Janis’s marrying while still a
  • //…the military men who refused to countenance the overthrow of
    the president.拒绝帮助推翻总统的军官们

– intermarry

  1. to marry sb of a different race or from a different
    or a different religious group
  • Blacks and whites often intermarried (= married each other).
  • They were not forbidden to intermarry with the local people.
  1. to marry sb within your own family or group
  • cousins who intermarry

– genealogy

  1. the study of family history, including the study of who the
    ancestors of a particular person were
  1. a particular person’s line of ancestors ; a diagram that shows

【拓展】 genealogical

  • a genealogical chart / table / tree (= a chart with branches
    that shows a person’s ancestors )

– Solomon

used to talk about a very wise person

  • In this job you need to exhibit the wisdom of Solomon.

From Solomon in the Bible, a king of Israel who was famous for being

– homage

~ (to sb / sth) (formal) something that is said or done to show
for sb

  • The kings of France paid homage to no one.
  • He describes his book as ‘a homage to my father’.

– shrine

  1. ~ (to sb / sth) | ~ (of sb / sth) a place where people come to
    worship because it is connected with a holy person or event
  • a shrine to the Virgin Mary
  • to visit the shrine of Mecca
  1. ~ (to sb / sth) | ~ (for sb) a place that people visit because it is
    connected with sb / sth that is important to them
  • Wimbledon is a shrine for all lovers of tennis.

– embody

  1. to express or represent an idea or a quality
    【SYN】 represent
  • a politician who embodied the hopes of black youth
  • the principles embodied in the Declaration of Human Rights
  1. (formal) to include or contain sth
  • This model embodies many new features.

– ascribe sth to sb / sth

  1. to consider that sth is caused by a particular thing or person
  • He ascribed his failure to bad luck.
  1. to consider that sb / sth has or should have a particular
  • We ascribe great importance to these policies.

ascribable ~ to sb / sth

  • Their success is ascribable to the quality of their goods.

♦ **ascription ~ (to sb / sth) **

  • the ascription of meaning to objects and events

– prophecy

A prophecy is a statement in which someone says they strongly believe
that a particular thing will happen.

  • The youth, too, fulfilled the prophecy.

– mould

~ sb / sth (into sb / sth) to strongly influence the way sb’s
character, opinions, etc. develop

  • The experience had moulded and coloured her whole life.
  • He moulded them into a superb team.

– hardy

Hardy means tough––if you’re hardy, you don’t get tired easily and
can endure hardship. People who don’t catch cold often attribute this
fact to their coming from hardy farming stock.
Before 1200, hardy indicated boldness and daring in battle and was
probably influenced by hard. Warriors are hardy: they’re brave and
strong and don’t easily tire. Plants and animals can also be hardy
if they can survive harsh weather or poor growing conditions
. When
planting a lawn, you should pick hardy species of grass, which will
survive droughts and come back after long, cold winters.

– fastness

A fastness is a place, such as a castle, which is considered safe
because it is difficult to reach or easy to defend against attack.

– tempted

If you say that you are tempted to do something, you mean that you
would like to do it.

  • I’m very tempted to sell my house.
  • She’d never even felt tempted to return.

– exodus

~ (from…) (to…) (formal or humorous) a situation in which many
people leave a place at the same time

  • the mass exodus from Paris to the country in the summer

– vassal

a country that depends on and is controlled by another country

– intercourse

Social intercourse is communication between people as they spend
time together.

  • There was social intercourse between the old and the young.

– unintelligible

~ (to sb)** impossible to understand**
【SYN】 incomprehensible

  • She turned away and muttered something unintelligible.
  • A lot of the jargon they use is unintelligible to outsiders.

– underlie

[no passive] (formal) to be the basis or cause of sth

  • These ideas underlie much of his work.
  • It is a principle that underlies all the party’s policies.

– narrative

a description of events, especially in a novel

  • a gripping narrative of their journey up the Amazon

– testimony

When you give testimony **you are telling what you saw or what you
know. **Your testimony that your hand was not in the cookie jar goes
against the testimony of several eyewitnesses.
The Latin root for testimony is testis, meaning “ witness.” “Eye
witness testimony” is a phrase you will hear often in legal
discussions. An object can also give testimony, without speaking of
course: “The statue they built of you outside the bowling alley offers
testimony to your greatness.”

– forthcoming

You know when you go to a movie and they show the previews under the
heading “coming soon?” They could just as well say forthcoming,
because it means the same thing. Only who would want to see that
stuffy movie?
“Forthcoming with” means “providing“––if your neighbors are not
forthcoming with candy on Halloween, you might have to egg their
house. When parents complain that their teenagers are not
forthcoming with
information about their life at school, they should
remember how much they valued their privacy when they were their kid’s

– scrap

A scrap of something is a very small piece or amount of it.

  • A crumpled scrap of paper was found in her handbag…
  • They need every scrap of information they can get.

– glean

~ sth (from sb / sth) to obtain information, knowledge etc.,
sometimes with difficulty and often from various different places

  • These figures have been gleaned from a number of studies.

– tortured

suffering severely; involving a lot of suffering and difficulty

  • a tortured mind

– fable

A fable is a moral tale that often features animal characters.
“The Tortoise and the Hare” (龟兔赛跑)is a well-known fable whose
moral is “Slow and steady wins the race.”
We often associate fables with the master of them all, Aesop. Among
the most famous fables attributed to this storyteller of ancient
Greece are “The Boy Who Cried Wolf”(狼来了) and “The Fox and the
Grapes.” (狐狸与草龙珠)But like its cousins tale, myth, and legend,
the word fable is also used to describe a deliberate fabrication or
. In other words, it can be a polite way to describe a lie.

  • Aesop’s Fables

– startling

Something that’s startling is so unexpected that it shocks or
surprises you
. It would be startling to open your front door and see
a clown standing there.
Startling events or circumstances aren’t necessarily frightening,
though they can be. A surprise party, if it’s planned right, is
startling, and it can be startling the first time you meet your best
friend’s identical twin sister. Alarm clocks, smoke alarms, and
barking dogs can all be equally startling. They **startle you **—
and startle comes from start, with its Old English root styrtan, “to
leap up.”

– throw / shed / cast / light on something

to provide new information that helps you understand something

  • I had hoped that he would be able to shed some light on the problem.

– illuminate

  1. to shine light on sth
  • Floodlights illuminated the stadium.
  • The earth is illuminated by the sun.
  1. (formal) to make sth clearer or easier to understand
    【SYN】 clarify
  • This text illuminates the philosopher’s early thinking.

– library

  1. (formal) a personal collection of books, CDs, etc.
  • a new edition to add to your library
  1. a series of books, recordings, etc. produced by the same company
    and similar in appearance
  • a library of children’s classics

– disinter

  1. to dig up sth, especially a dead body, from the ground
  1. ~ sth (from sth) to find sth that has been hidden or lost for a
    long time

Day 24: Words & Phrases Ⅱ

– yield up

If you yield up a secret, you reveal it.

  • //…asking law firms to yield up their deepest secrets.

– tablet

Clay tablets or stone tablets are the flat pieces of clay or stone
which people used to **write on before paper was invented. **

  • He also studied the ancient stone tablets from around the

– contemporary

a** person who lives or lived at the same time as sb** else,
especially sb who is about the same age

  • She and I were contemporaries at college.
  • He was a contemporary of Freud and may have known him.

– autograph

a famous person’s signature, especially when sb asks them to write it

  • Could I have your autograph?

– heyday

the time when sb / sth had most power or success, or was most

  • In its heyday, the company ran trains every fifteen minutes.
  • a picture of Brigitte Bardot in her heyday
    碧姬 · 芭铎工作兴旺时的一张照片

– net

final, after all the important facts have been included

  • The net result is that small shopkeepers are being forced out of
  • a net gain

– In the true sense of the word

  • We are actually patriots in the true sense of the word.
  • But even with aforementioned possibilities,it is not necessary to
    continue to be friends,at least not in the true sense of the word.


Something that is decrepit is old and in bad condition. Someone
who is decrepit is old and weak.

  • The film had been shot in a decrepit old police station.
  • ..a decrepit old man.

– barbarian

  1. someone from a different tribe or land, who people believe to be
    wild and not civilized
  • The Roman Empire came under severe pressure from the barbarians
    across the Rhine.
  1. someone who does not behave properly, and does not show proper
    respect for education
    , art etc:
  • The youths were described as uncivilised barbarians who savagely
    attacked innocent victims.
  1. someone who behaves in a way that is cruel and uncivilized

– annals

Annals are chronological historical records. Some annals recount
the achievements of war heroes; others, in the form of high school
yearbooks, record historically terrible hairstyles.

– deem

to think of something in a particular way or as having a
particular quality
【SYN 】consider

  • They deemed that he was no longer capable of managing the
  • They were told to take whatever action they deemed necessary.
  • They were deemed to be illegal immigrants.

– dogmatic

If you say that someone is dogmatic, you are critical of them because
they are convinced that they are right, and refuse to consider that
other opinions might also be justified
. [disapproval]

  • Many writers at this time held rigidly dogmatic views…
  • The regime is dogmatic, and no one dares to express personal


  • He applies the Marxist world view dogmatically to all social

– dwarf

If one person or thing is dwarfed by another, the second is so
much bigger than the first that it makes them look very small

  • His figure is dwarfed by the huge red McDonald’s sign…
  • The US air travel market dwarfs that of Britain.

– canon

Canon is all about authoritative standards—for literature,
sainthood, or behavior. Don’t confuse it with cannon with two n’s, the
big gun that shoots bowling-size balls at the enemy.

– peremptorily

(formal)in a way that allows no discussion or refusal

  • She peremptorily rejected the request.

– court

If you laugh someone out of court, you say that their opinions or
ideas are so ridiculous that they are not worth considering.

  • It’s easy for a younger generation of critics to laugh Limon out of
  • Polytechnic lecturers have asked for 12.5 per cent, a claim sure to
    be laughed out of court.

– incredulous

If someone is incredulous, they are unable to believe something
because it is very surprising or shocking.

  • ‘He made you do it?’ Her voice was incredulous…“
  • There was a brief, incredulous silence.

– relegate

If you relegate someone or something to a less important position,
you give them this position.

  • Might it not be better to relegate the King to a purely ceremonial
  • Other newspapers relegated the item to the middle pages.

– veritable

You can use veritable to emphasize the size, amount, or nature of

  • //…a veritable feast of pre-match entertainment.尽情的赛后游戏享受
  • //…a veritable army of security guards.壹支真正的警卫部队

– restore

To restore someone or something to a previous condition means to
cause them to be in that condition once again.

  • We will restore her to health but it may take time…
  • He said the ousted president must be restored to power…
  • His country desperately needs Western aid to restore its ailing

– contemporaneous

If two events or situations are contemporaneous, they happen or
exist during the same period of time

  • //…the contemporaneous development of a separate and quite
    recognisable Scottish school of art.

– pun

A pun is a play on words. If a bird flying overhead takes a poop
on the cake you’re carrying, you could say “Isn’t that just the icing
on the cake!” But only if you want to be punny.
Friend of the double entendre and other witticisms, a pun is a comedic
phrase that plays off of the sounds and double meanings of words.
Puns can be quite clever, but often come off as silly, cheeseball
attempts at humor. That’s probably why any good comedian will tell you
that “a pun is a short quip followed by a long groan.”

– entitle

If you are entitled to something, you have the right to have it
or do it.

  • If the warranty is limited, the terms may entitle you to a
    replacement or refund…
  • They are entitled to first class travel…他们得以坐头等舱旅行。
  • There are 23 Clubs throughout the U.S., and your membership entitles
    you to enjoy all of them.

– inscription

words written in the front of a book or cut in stone or metal

– scrupulous

  1. careful about paying attention to every detail

【SYN】 meticulous

  • You must be scrupulous about hygiene when you’re preparing a baby’s
  • scrupulous attention to detail
  1. ~ (in sth / in doing sth) careful to be honest and do what is right
  • He was scrupulous in all his business dealings.

【拓展】 scrupulously

  • Her house is scrupulously clean.
  • to be scrupulously honest

– nay

You use nay in front of a stronger word or phrase which you feel is
more correct than the one you have just used and helps to emphasize
the point you are making.

  • He was grateful for and proud of his son’s remarkable, nay, unique
  • Long essays, nay, whole books have been written on this.

– deliver

If someone delivers you from something, they rescue or save you
from it.

  • I have given thanks to God for delivering me from that

– presuppose

If one thing presupposes another, the first thing cannot be true or
exist unless the second thing is true or exists.

  • All your arguments presuppose that he’s a rational, intelligent
  • The end of an era presupposes the start of another.

– pardon

If someone who has been found guilty of a crime is pardoned, they are
officially allowed to go free and are not punished.

  • Hundreds of political prisoners were pardoned and

Pardon is also a noun.

  • He was granted a presidential pardon.他获得了总理的大赦。

– throne

  1. A throne is a decorative chair used by a king, queen, or emperor
    on important official occasions.
  1. You can talk about the throne as a way of referring to the
    position of being king, queen, or emperor.
  • //…the Queen’s 50th anniversary on the throne.水晶室女登基 50
  • //…the heir to the throne.王位承接人

– still/much/even less

used after a negative statement in order to emphasize that it applies
even more to what you say next

  • They are not interested in reading poetry, still less in writing it.
  • I am no-one’s spokesman, much less his.

– lapse

A lapse of time is a period that is long enough for a situation to
change or for people to have a different opinion about it.

  • //…the restoration of diplomatic relations after a lapse of 24

  • There is usually a time lapse between receipt of new information and
    its publication.

– numberless

If there are numberless things, there are too many to be counted.

  • //…numberless acts of personal bravery by firefighters and rescue


– effect

If you effect something that you are trying to achieve, you
succeed in causing it to happen.

  • Prospects for effecting real political change seemed to have taken a
    major step backwards.

– furnish

If you furnish someone with something, you provide or supply

  • They’ll be able to furnish you with the rest of the

– commencement

  1. The commencement of something is its beginning.
  • All applicants should be at least 16 years of age at the
    commencement of this course.
  1. Commencement is a ceremony at a university, college, or high
    school at which students formally receive their degrees or

Day 25: Map of different nations

局地地名的主次因素排列图 Map 1

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Map 1.png

多少个明朝文明的大致地方图 Map 贰

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Map 2.png


– Canaan

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– Egypt, Babylon, Mitanni, Hittite, Assyria

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– Mesopotamia

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– Kingdom of Israel and Judah(931 B.C. —586B.C. )

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– Assyrian Empire

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– Elam

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Day 26: Task

Task 1:迦南(巴勒Stan国以色列(Israel)地区)的首要人种(占领者)

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Canaanites 3000 B.C..jpg


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  1. 《明代东方文明》
  2. 维基百科
  3. BibleStudy.org
  4. gotquestions.org
  5. 《巴勒Stan国(the State of Palestine)的歷史糾結》林載爵,東海南大学學歷史系

Task 贰: 四个圣经传说+四个圣经之外考古证据佐证的资料+巴比伦演进极简图

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– Abraham

一. 传说剧情


2. 佐证素材(一)

上世纪 20 时代到 30
2600 年至公元前 2500



– Moses

壹. 故事内容

Moses是纪元前十三世纪的犹太人先知,旧约圣经前伍本书的执小编。指点在埃及(The Arab Republic of Egypt)过著奴隶生活的以色列(Israel)人,达到神所预备的流着奶和蜜之地——迦南(巴勒Stan国(the State of Palestine)的古地名,在前天约旦河与克利特海的西岸1带),神借著Moses写下《10诫》给他的子民遵从,并建造会幕,教导他的子民膜拜他。
摩西最享著名时代异常的大概是西元前拾三世纪,因为普及以为《圣经·出阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)记》中的法老拉丁美洲西斯贰世就死于西元前12三七年。因为她的名字来自埃及(Egypt)语而不是阿尔巴尼亚语,意思是“小孩子”或“外甥”(Moses在匈牙利语的情致是:从水里拉出来),从他出生不到5百余年中,Moses为持有的犹太人所向往。
一百年过后,穆罕默德以为Moses是实在的圣贤。随着伊斯兰教的传遍,Moses在任何伊斯兰世界里(甚至包涵埃及(The Arab Republic of Egypt))成了受人向往的人物。Moses在他死后三千多年的前几天,仍一样碰着犹太教徒、道教徒的爱惜,甚至还遇到众多无神论者的爱抚。

2. 佐证素材


– Joseph

一. 逸事剧情

《圣经》人物。雅各与拉结所生之子。因聪颖得其父偏爱而遭众兄弟嫉恨,众兄将其卖掉,后被带到埃及(Egypt)。因给阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)法老释梦获得重用,被任为宰相。任职时期埃及(Egypt)仓满粮足。后因其故乡迦南遇并日而食,与前来阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)买粮的汉子儿相认和平化解,并接其父前往埃及。与其兄弟共同被视为以色列(Israel)拾2列祖之壹。

二. 佐证资料

图 一.

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此前文《亚伯拉罕的传说》所述,在亚伯拉罕时代就有广大的迦南人,因着饥馑或从事商业的缘故进入阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)。到了约瑟时代,从迦南及西乃半岛来到埃及(Egypt)的人为数更多。除了并日而食及交易,更有和约瑟同样是被卖到埃及(Egypt)来作奴隶的。从中王朝大量的民间文献看来,当时确已有数不完闪族人散居埃及(Egypt)随地。图壹所示为埃及(The Arab Republic of Egypt)中王朝晚期的芦苇草纸卷文献,时间约在中王朝的第12与第23朝代之间。纸卷为一家门奴隶名单,计有七18人奴仆的名字,个中四十二人是闪族人名,如施佛拉(Shiphrah,名同Moses出生时的希伯来接生婆)及米拿现(Menahem,名同《王下》15∶1四迦底的幼子)等。而她们的监护人名份是“管理家务”。约瑟在波提乏家,他的名份和职责也是“管理家务”(《创》39∶四)。
在全方位“约瑟有趣的事”之中,并未有明写约瑟拜官的级差。法老也从没用“宰相”那样的职称来封侯约瑟。但约瑟的地位与职分分明是“治理阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)全地”,职尊壹人之下,万人之上(《创》四一∶40)。从她的行事范围和他干活的习性看来,固然不是首相,至少是内政、经济、农业县长。大家可从考古发掘的埃及(Egypt)“墓画”,来看当时首相封侯的仪仗。埃及(The Arab Republic of Egypt)人爱面子,尤其是贵族,总爱将她们生前的丰功伟业刻画在安葬石室的墙上。

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我们不知晓约瑟是否阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)的第多少个闪族宰相,但至少知道她不是最后一个人。依据由埃及(The Arab Republic of Egypt)卡那神庙(Templeof
Zivic)一玖9〇年的告诉,他们的考古队在某处发掘另1人闪族宰相(Vizier)的墓画,时间是埃及(Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)死灰复燃历史记载后的新王朝时代。这位闪族宰相名亚Pell(Aper-el),爱妻为阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)人。他的史事写在芦苇草纸的档案上,10分详实。试想1位活在有那麽详细资料记录朝代的首相,尚且要等到20世纪的80年间末才出土,这麽要找出第三中衰期未有档案记载的约瑟文献,将要继续耐心的等候考古队更漫漫、流更加多汗水的成果了。

“约瑟死了,正1九岁。人用香水将他薰了,把她收殓在棺材里,停在阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)(The Arab Republic of Egypt)。”(《创》伍三∶2陆)那段叙述是道道地地的“埃及(Egypt)化”。约瑟的肉体被木乃伊化,那当然是埃及(Egypt)地民俗,也是为了方便未来带回迦南地。约瑟死时1柒周岁,却刚刚是埃及人给予他们的“先圣先贤”的脍炙人口寿数,不管他们确实的寿命为什么。无怪乎后世历史家稀奇于“约瑟典故”的撰稿人明确有成都百货上千的“埃及(Egypt)经历”。若他们确认作者是Moses,而又愿意多读一些佛经,当就了然“Moses学了埃及(Egypt)人的全体文化。”(《徒》七∶22)那整个也就不算“稀奇”了!

– Babylon发展览演出示图


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Day 27: Summary & Supplementary Information

Supplementary Information


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显示器快速照相 2017-0三-2伍 1陆.03.4九.png

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  • Well, to be honest, this article is really difficult for me, because
    I am really not familiar with history and geography, let alone the
    history of other countries and other areas beside Asia. And the
    first time I read this article, I was struggling with the difference
    between Palestine and Pakistan. They are very similar in accent. But
    after some research, I found that there is no accurate area called
    Palestine. Then, I felt desperate, especially when I have a list of
    nearly 100 unfamiliar words as well as those complicated names of
    Bible figures. Yes, so I spent nearly 3 day to deal with this
    article in order to get through it. And today, I will just share
    something I learnt in this process.

  • First, even though those complicated names really bother me, I get
    to learn much about those stories in the Bible. And I find it a
    little interesting. Well, sometimes it’s just pretty amazing. I
    mean, These stories are related with the history and it’s difficult
    to tell whether they are true or not. But to some extent, it makes
    sense. So I really think the work of archaeology is quite big stuff.
    For example, I am really impressed with the names of those Bible
    figures in my research. And here is a chart to show them.





Well, it's just so amazing. Different people in different nations
are related with the Bible and God. And it seems so sensible.
Sometimes, I can't even tell whether the Bible is just a story or
the reality. It's really interesting.
  • Then, some thoughts of the author really impress me. Like, he said,
    “ the impossibility of forming a correct judgment in regard to any
    one part of it without reference to the rest”. And the author means
    that we can never form a correct judgement without regarding the
    rest part of it. I think this is a very great idea. When you learn
    something, you have to put yourself in the whole system of that
    background, and then you get to know the origin, development and the
    result. It’s an important process. Without it, we may find ourselves
    trapped in those numberless unintelligible things. Take myself for
    an example, I got really confused at first when I read this article
    the first time, but after studying the related background, I feel
    better. And I really have a specific idea of those countries like
    Assyria and Canaan.

  • And, he also said, “He has been warned, too, against making his own
    prepossessions and assumptions the test of historical truth, of
    laying down that a reported fact could not have happened because it
    runs counter to what he assumes to have been the state of society in
    some particular age.” I think this is very right. When we study
    something or try to find the truth of something, we need to be
    object and rid ourselves from our own prepossession so that we can
    make the right conclusion. Otherwise, what we conclude is useless
    because of its subjectiveness.

  • Beside the history of Israel and its surrounding nations, I learn
    more about the method to study. The author put forward a very
    helpful perspective of learning and thinking throughout the article,
    and it’s really beneficial for my future study. I will try to study
    and think like that.

  • After all, I really have learnt a lot in the process. I gained much
    knowledge about the Bible and the history of the Israel, Egypt and
    so on. Even though it’s really complicated and I still couldn’t
    figure out some part of the article until now, but I think my
    efforts will pay off.

  • And great thanks to Annie and Gambition. Thank you for your help and

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