笃学奖-Topic 7-A14559-甘比精读

Day 23: Words & Phrases Ⅰ

– strike

  1. (not used in the progressive tenses) (of a thought or an idea) to
    come into sb’s mind suddenly
  • An awful thought has just struck me.
    刚才本人脑子里突然闪过一个骇人听闻的心绪。
  • I was struck by her resemblance to my aunt.
    自身豁然发现他长得跟我三姨很像。
  • It suddenly struck me how we could improve the situation.
    自我弹指间通晓大家如何能创新局面了。
  1. ~ sb (as sth) to give sb a particular impression
  • His reaction struck me as odd.
    她的反应令自己惊奇。
  • How does the idea strike you?
    你觉得那个主张咋样?
  • She strikes me as a very efficient person.
    在本人眼里,她是个很成熟的人。
  • It strikes me that nobody is really in favour of the changes.
    我觉得没人真正赞成那几个改动。

– defile

A defile is a very narrow valley or passage, usually through
mountains.

– crowd

  1. to fill a place so there is little room to move
  • Thousands of people crowded the narrow streets.
    很多的人把狭窄的马路挤得水泄不通。
  1. to fill your mind so that you can think of nothing else
  • Memories crowded his mind.
    历史涌上他的心田。
  1. (informal) to stand very close to sb so that they feel
    uncomfortable or nervous

– perch

A perch is a temporary resting place. In the middle of climbing a
tree, you might find a good perch on a high branch. Bet some birds
will be perching there too. Perch has many different meanings. A
bird perch is a little stick it can balance on, and the armrest of
the couch can offer you a perch during a party. It’s also the name of
a kind of fish with spiny fins.

  1. [V] ~ (on sth) (of a bird) to land and stay on a branch, etc.
  • A robin was perching on the fence.
    一只知更鸟落在篱笆上。
  1. ~ (sb / yourself) (on sth) (informal) to sit or to make sb sit
    on sth, especially on the edge of it
  • We perched on a couple of high stools at the bar.
    俺们坐在酒吧的多少个高脚凳上。
  • She perched herself on the edge of the bed.
    她坐在牀沿上。
  1. [V] ~ (on sth) to be placed on the top or the edge of sth
  • The hotel perched precariously on a steep hillside.
    饭店立在陡峭的山坡上状似摇摇欲坠。

– crag

a high steep rough mass of rock

  • a castle set on a crag above the village
    身处村子上方悬崖上的城堡

– sustenance

Sustenance comes from the word sustain, which means to continue.
Sustenance is food or drink that allows you to continue to be
alive
. For many, prayer is a source of spiritual sustenance.
If your chief source of sustenance is candy, you are going to get
sick, but you will have a good time while it lasts. In much of the
world, rice and beans provide sustenance to human beings. In the US,
Native Americans taught Europeans how to grow corn, which turned into
a major source of sustenance for their population.

– rival

~ sb / sth (for / in sth) to be as good, impressive, etc. as sb / sth
else
【SYN】 compare with

  • You will find scenery to rival anything you can see in the Alps.
    你能看出的山水可与您在阿尔卑斯山所见的山水相比美。
  • This latest design has no rivals (= it is easily the best design
    available).
    那种新颖样式一花独放。
  • has no rivals or is without rival
    从未对手;独一无二;无人能及;

– necessarily

used to say that sth cannot be avoided

  • The number of places available is necessarily limited.
    可用场合的数目不可防止地很简单。

【IDIOMS】 not necessarily
used to say that sth is possibly true but not definitely or always
true

  • The more expensive articles are not necessarily better.
    较贵的东西不见得就较好。
  • Biggest doesn’t necessarily mean best.
    最大的不必然是最好的。
  • ‘We’re going to lose.’ ‘Not necessarily.’
    “大家会输的。” “未必。”

– scanty

We refer to an amount or thing that is not quite enough as scanty,
or lacking. It’s an adjective used to describe something that
doesn’t offer enough
, as in “farmers having a scanty crop in a
drought year.”
The adjective scanty comes from the Old Norse scamt, which means
“short or brief,” and so suggests a small amount. The word usually
suggests a meager amount, and can refer to anything that is barely
sufficient. Someone trying to stretch a meal might offer scanty
servings. On a humorous note, a Roaring Twenties flapper referred to
her underwear as scanties.

– battle-ground

  1. a place where a battle is being fought or has been fought
  1. You can refer to an issue or field of activity over which people
    disagree or compete as a battleground.
  • //…the battleground of education…
    春风化雨这一备受争议的园地
  • Children’s literature is an ideological battleground.
    孩童工学是各样意识形态交锋的战场。

– extent

the physical size of an area

  • You can’t see the full extent of the beach from here.
    从此时不能看到沙滩全貌。
  • The region is over 10,000 square kilometres in extent.

– revolve around

  1. [not in progressive] to have something as a main subject or
    purpose
    :
  • Jane’s life revolves around her children.
  • The argument revolved around costs.
  • She seems to think that the world revolves around her (=that she
    is the only important person)
    .
  1. to move in circles around something
  • The moon revolves around the Earth.

– alike

  1. in a very similar way
  • They tried to treat all their children alike.
    她俩尽可能对协调的子女比量齐观。
  1. used after you have referred to two people or groups, to mean
    ‘both’ or ‘equally’
  • Good management benefits employers and employees alike.
    精良的田间管理对雇主和雇员同样有益。

– outpost

  1. a small military camp away from the main army, used for watching
    an enemy’s movements, etc.
  1. a small town or group of buildings in a lonely part of a country
  • a remote outpost
    边远的乡镇
  • the last outpost of civilization
    大方的边缘地带

– highroad

  1. (old-fashioned) a main road
  1. take the (moral) high road to do what you believe is right
    according to your beliefs:
  • Daley has taken the high road in his campaign.

– seat

~ of sth (formal) a place where people are involved in a particular
activity
, especially a city that has a university or the offices of
a government

  • Washington is the seat of government of the US.
    华盛顿是美国政坛所在地。
  • a university town renowned as a seat of learning
    有学问中央之称的高校城

– throw off

If you throw off something that is restricting you or making you
unhappy, you get rid of it.

  • //…a country ready to throw off the shackles of its colonial
    past…
    就要摆脱过去殖民枷锁的国家
  • One day depression descended upon him, and wherever he went after
    that he could never throw it off.
    有一天,他突然先导低落起来,从那将来,无论她走到何处也摆脱不了那种心境。

– yoke

(literary or formal) rough treatment or sth that restricts your
freedom and makes your life very difficult to bear

  • the yoke of imperialism
    帝国主义的羁绊

– spoil

  1. the spoils [pl.] (formal or literary) goods taken from a
    place by thieves or by an army that has won a battle or war
  1. spoils [pl.] the profits or advantages that sb gets from being
    successful
  • the spoils of high office
    身居高位的连锁利益

– contend

  1. (formal) to say that sth is true, especially in an argument

**【SYN】 maintain **

  • I would contend that the minister’s thinking is flawed on this
    point.
    自己倒觉得参谋长的想法在那一点上有漏洞。
  1. ** ~ (for sth) ** to compete against sb in order to gain sth
  • Three armed groups were contending for power.
    多个武装公司在斗争权力。

**【拓展】contend with sth **
to have to deal with a problem or difficult situation

  • Nurses often have to contend with violent or drunken patients.
    看护平日只好对付残暴的或喝醉酒的患儿。

– pharaoh

a ruler of ancient Egypt

– oriental

connected with or typical of the eastern part of the world,
especially China and Japan, and the people who live there

  • oriental languages
    北部语言

– occupation

the act of moving into a country, town, etc. and taking control of
it using military force
; the period of time during which a country,
town, etc. is controlled in this way

  • the Roman occupation of Britain
    布达佩斯人对不列颠的占领
  • The areas under occupation contained major industrial areas.
    被占领地区所有主要的工业区。
  • occupation forces
    占领军

– occupation

the act of moving into a country, town, etc. and taking control of
it using military force
; the period of time during which a country,
town, etc. is controlled in this way

  • the Roman occupation of Britain
    布拉格人对不列颠的拿下
  • The areas under occupation contained major industrial areas.
    被占领地区富有紧要的工业区。
  • occupation forces
    占领军

– people

[usually passive] ~ sth (with sth) to live in a place or fill it
with people

  • The town was peopled largely by workers from the car factory and
    their families.
    以此镇上的居住者大多数份都是小车厂的工友及其眷属。
  • The ballroom was peopled with guests.
    舞厅里满堂宾客。

– akin

~ to sth (formal) similar to

  • What he felt was more akin to pity than love.
    他感受到的更像怜悯,而不是爱。

– blood

You can use blood to refer to the race or social class of
someone’s parents or ancestors. [usu supp N]

  • There was Greek blood in his veins…
    他有希腊语(Greece)血统。
  • He was of noble blood, and an officer.
    他身家贵族,是一名军人。

– speech

  1. the way in which a particular person speaks
  • Her speech was slurred—she was clearly drunk.
    他说道含混不清——她肯定是喝醉了。
  1. the language used when speaking
  • This expression is used mainly in speech, not in writing.
    这种表达主要用以口语,而不是书面语。
  • speech sounds
    语音

– tribe

(sometimes offensive) (in developing countries) a group of people of
the same race, and with the same customs, language, religion,
etc., living in a particular area and often led by a chief

【区别】race
Race can also mean genetic grouping. One of the main groups that
humans can be divided into according to their physical
differences
, for example the colour of their skin

– notably

  1. used for giving a good or the most important example of sth
    【SYN】 especially
  • The house had many drawbacks, most notably its price.
    那房子有过多败笔,特别是它的价位。
  1. to a great degree
    【SYN】 remarkably
  • This has not been a notably successful project.
    其一类型尚未得到很大的打响。

– descend from somebody / something

  1. be descended from somebody to be related to a person or group who
    lived a long time ago:
  • She claims to be descended from Abraham Lincoln.
  • The people here are descended from the Vikings.
  1. to have developed from something that existed in the past
    【SYN】come from
  • ideas that descend from those of ancient philosophers

– Taurus

  1. the second sign of the zodiac , the Bull
  1. [sing.] a person born under the influence of this sign, that is
    between 21 April and 21 May

【拓展】 Twelve Constellations

图片 1

Constellation.jpeg

– fling

to throw sb / sth somewhere with force, especially because you are
angry
**【SYN】 hurl **:

  • Someone had flung a brick through the window.
    有人把一块砖扔进了窗户。
  • The door was suddenly flung open.
    门突然被推向了。
  • He had his enemies flung into prison.
    她把仇人投进了铁栏杆。

【拓展 】
■ fling yourself into sth
to start to do sth with a lot of energy and enthusiasm

  • They flung themselves into the preparations for the party.
    他们心神专注地准备团圆饭。

■ fling sth∽off / on
to** take off or put on clothing** in a quick and careless way

  • He flung off his coat and collapsed on the sofa.
    她顺手脱掉大衣,倒在沙发上。

– admixture

Admixture means the same as mixture.

  • //…an admixture of fact and fantasy.
    内情结合

– conquest

  1. the act of taking control of a country, city, etc. by force
  • the Norman Conquest (= of England in 1066)
    诺玛n克制(即 1066 年诺玛n人打败大英帝国)
  1. an area of land taken by force
  • the Spanish conquests in South America
    西班牙王国人在南美洲的占领地
  1. (usually humorous) a person that sb has persuaded to love them or to
    have sex with them
  • I’m just one of his many conquests.
    自身但是是她的重重俘虏之一。
  1. the act of gaining control over sth that is difficult or
    dangerous
  • the conquest of inflation
    对通货膨胀的操纵

– Israelitish

adj. 犹太人的,希伯来人的,古以色列国(人)的
Israelite: a member of the ancient Hebrew nation described in the
Bible

– storm

If a place that is being defended is stormed, a group of people
attack it, usually in order to get inside it.

  • Government buildings have been stormed and looted…
    政坛大楼遭到了攻击和抢掠。
  • The refugees decided to storm the embassy.
    难民们决定冲进大使馆。

【拓展】 storming

  • //…the storming of the Bastille.
    巴士底狱的打下

– massacre

  1. [n] the killing of a large number of people especially in a
    cruel way
  • the bloody massacre of innocent civilians
    对无辜公民的血腥屠杀
  • Nobody survived the massacre.
    本次屠杀无人幸免。
  1. (informal) a very big defeat in a game or competition
  • The game was a 10–0 massacre for our team.
    这一场竞赛大家队以 0:10 惜败。
  1. [v.] to kill a large number of people, especially in a cruel
    way
  2. (informal) to defeat sb in a game or competition by a high score

– intermingle

~ (A) (with B) | ~ A and B (formal) to mix people, ideas, colours,
etc. together; to be mixed in this way

  • The book intermingles fact with fiction.
    那本书事实和兴风作浪并存。
  • The book intermingles fact and fiction.
    那本书事实和虚构并存。
  • tourists and local people intermingling in the market square
    聚拢在市面广场上的观光客和本地人

– captive

  1. kept as a prisoner or in a confined space; unable to escape
  • captive animals
    关在笼子里的动物
  • They were taken captive by masked gunmen.
    他俩被覆盖的手持歹徒胁迫了。
  • captive breeding (= the catching and breeding of wild animals)
    野生动物的人为捕获饲养
  1. [only before noun] not free to leave a particular place or to
    choose what you want do to
  • A salesman loves to have a captive audience (= listening because
    they have no choice).
    推销商喜欢不得不听的听众。
  1. [noun] a person who is kept as a prisoner, especially in a war

– surmount

  1. If you surmount a problem or difficulty, you deal successfully
    with it.
  • I realized I had to surmount the language barrier.
    自我发觉到自己只得战胜语言障碍。
  1. If something is surmounted by a particular thing, that thing is on
    top of it.
  • The island is surmounted by a huge black castle.
    岛的最高处耸立着一座宏伟的藏蓝色城堡。

– Jewish

connected with Jews or Judaism; believing in and practising Judaism

  • We’re Jewish.
    大家是犹太人。
  • the local Jewish community
    当地的犹太人群体

– countenance

If someone will not countenance something, they do not agree with
it and will not allow it to happen.

  • Jake would not countenance Janis’s marrying while still a
    student.杰克不会同意贾阿伯丁还在求学就结婚。
  • //…the military men who refused to countenance the overthrow of
    the president.拒绝支持推翻总统的军官们

– intermarry

  1. to marry sb of a different race or from a different
    country
    or a different religious group
  • Blacks and whites often intermarried (= married each other).
    黑人和白人时有通婚。
  • They were not forbidden to intermarry with the local people.
    他俩未被明令禁止与土著通婚。
  1. to marry sb within your own family or group
  • cousins who intermarry
    近亲结婚的堂表兄弟姐妹

– genealogy

  1. the study of family history, including the study of who the
    ancestors of a particular person were
  1. a particular person’s line of ancestors ; a diagram that shows
    this

【拓展】 genealogical

  • a genealogical chart / table / tree (= a chart with branches
    that shows a person’s ancestors )
    系谱图;家谱表;家系树状图

– Solomon

used to talk about a very wise person

  • In this job you need to exhibit the wisdom of Solomon.
    做那份工作亟待表现出Solomon王一样的才智。

【ORIGIN】
From Solomon in the Bible, a king of Israel who was famous for being
wise.
溯源《圣经》中以聪明着称的以色列国(The State of Israel)王Solomon。

– homage

~ (to sb / sth) (formal) something that is said or done to show
respect
for sb

  • The kings of France paid homage to no one.
    法兰西太岁不对任何人效忠。
  • He describes his book as ‘a homage to my father’.
    她说她的书是”献给岳父”的。

– shrine

  1. ~ (to sb / sth) | ~ (of sb / sth) a place where people come to
    worship because it is connected with a holy person or event
  • a shrine to the Virgin Mary
    供奉圣母玛罗萨里奥的朝圣地
  • to visit the shrine of Mecca
    前往圣地麦加朝圣
  1. ~ (to sb / sth) | ~ (for sb) a place that people visit because it is
    connected with sb / sth that is important to them
  • Wimbledon is a shrine for all lovers of tennis.
    温布尔登是拥有网球爱好者的圣地。

– embody

  1. to express or represent an idea or a quality
    【SYN】 represent
  • a politician who embodied the hopes of black youth
    代表黑人青年希望的法学家
  • the principles embodied in the Declaration of Human Rights
    反映在《人权宣言》中的原则
  1. (formal) to include or contain sth
  • This model embodies many new features.
    那种型号具有许多新特性。

– ascribe sth to sb / sth

  1. to consider that sth is caused by a particular thing or person
  • He ascribed his failure to bad luck.
    他认为自己的破产是命局不好。
  1. to consider that sb / sth has or should have a particular
    quality
  • We ascribe great importance to these policies.
    俺们认为那一个政策卓殊重大。

【拓展】
ascribable ~ to sb / sth

  • Their success is ascribable to the quality of their goods.
    他们的成功在于商品的质量。

♦ **ascription ~ (to sb / sth) **

  • the ascription of meaning to objects and events
    东西所怀有的内涵

– prophecy

A prophecy is a statement in which someone says they strongly believe
that a particular thing will happen.

  • The youth, too, fulfilled the prophecy.
    非凡青年,同样地,让预感说中了。

– mould

~ sb / sth (into sb / sth) to strongly influence the way sb’s
character, opinions, etc. develop

  • The experience had moulded and coloured her whole life.
    本次经历影响了他的一生。
  • He moulded them into a superb team.
    他将她们塑造成一支卓绝的枪杆子。

– hardy

Hardy means tough––if you’re hardy, you don’t get tired easily and
can endure hardship. People who don’t catch cold often attribute this
fact to their coming from hardy farming stock.
Before 1200, hardy indicated boldness and daring in battle and was
probably influenced by hard. Warriors are hardy: they’re brave and
strong and don’t easily tire. Plants and animals can also be hardy
if they can survive harsh weather or poor growing conditions
. When
planting a lawn, you should pick hardy species of grass, which will
survive droughts and come back after long, cold winters.

– fastness

A fastness is a place, such as a castle, which is considered safe
because it is difficult to reach or easy to defend against attack.

– tempted

If you say that you are tempted to do something, you mean that you
would like to do it.

  • I’m very tempted to sell my house.
    本身很想把我的房舍卖掉。
  • She’d never even felt tempted to return.
    他居然尚未动过回到的胸臆。

– exodus

~ (from…) (to…) (formal or humorous) a situation in which many
people leave a place at the same time

  • the mass exodus from Paris to the country in the summer
    春天巨大人从巴黎外出到乡村

– vassal

a country that depends on and is controlled by another country

– intercourse

Social intercourse is communication between people as they spend
time together.

  • There was social intercourse between the old and the young.
    老翁与年轻人中间有社会交往。

– unintelligible

~ (to sb)** impossible to understand**
【SYN】 incomprehensible

  • She turned away and muttered something unintelligible.
    他转载一旁,嘴里不知咕哝些什么。
  • A lot of the jargon they use is unintelligible to outsiders.
    他俩所用的大方行话是别人听不懂的。

– underlie

[no passive] (formal) to be the basis or cause of sth

  • These ideas underlie much of his work.
    她的创作超过一半份都是以那几个大旨思想为底蕴。
  • It is a principle that underlies all the party’s policies.
    那是贯穿该党各项政策的一条规则。

– narrative

a description of events, especially in a novel

  • a gripping narrative of their journey up the Amazon
    她们沿亚马孙河而上的感人的叙说

– testimony

When you give testimony **you are telling what you saw or what you
know. **Your testimony that your hand was not in the cookie jar goes
against the testimony of several eyewitnesses.
The Latin root for testimony is testis, meaning “ witness.” “Eye
witness testimony” is a phrase you will hear often in legal
discussions. An object can also give testimony, without speaking of
course: “The statue they built of you outside the bowling alley offers
testimony to your greatness.”

– forthcoming

You know when you go to a movie and they show the previews under the
heading “coming soon?” They could just as well say forthcoming,
because it means the same thing. Only who would want to see that
stuffy movie?
“Forthcoming with” means “providing“––if your neighbors are not
forthcoming with candy on Halloween, you might have to egg their
house. When parents complain that their teenagers are not
forthcoming with
information about their life at school, they should
remember how much they valued their privacy when they were their kid’s
age.

– scrap

A scrap of something is a very small piece or amount of it.

  • A crumpled scrap of paper was found in her handbag…
    在他的提包里发现了一张皱巴巴的小纸片。
  • They need every scrap of information they can get.
    其余可以收获的信息他们都亟待。

– glean

~ sth (from sb / sth) to obtain information, knowledge etc.,
sometimes with difficulty and often from various different places

  • These figures have been gleaned from a number of studies.
    那几个数据是经过反复探究收集得来的。

– tortured

suffering severely; involving a lot of suffering and difficulty

  • a tortured mind
    横祸的心

– fable

A fable is a moral tale that often features animal characters.
“The Tortoise and the Hare” (龟兔赛跑)is a well-known fable whose
moral is “Slow and steady wins the race.”
We often associate fables with the master of them all, Aesop. Among
the most famous fables attributed to this storyteller of ancient
Greece are “The Boy Who Cried 沃尔夫”(狼来了) and “The 福克斯 and the
Grapes.” (狐狸与葡萄)But like its cousins tale, myth, and legend,
the word fable is also used to describe a deliberate fabrication or
fiction
. In other words, it can be a polite way to describe a lie.

  • Aesop’s Fables
    伊索寓言

– startling

Something that’s startling is so unexpected that it shocks or
surprises you
. It would be startling to open your front door and see
a clown standing there.
Startling events or circumstances aren’t necessarily frightening,
though they can be. A surprise party, if it’s planned right, is
startling, and it can be startling the first time you meet your best
friend’s identical twin sister. Alarm clocks, smoke alarms, and
barking dogs can all be equally startling. They **startle you **—
and startle comes from start, with its Old English root styrtan, “to
leap up.”

– throw / shed / cast / light on something

to provide new information that helps you understand something

  • I had hoped that he would be able to shed some light on the problem.

– illuminate

  1. to shine light on sth
  • Floodlights illuminated the stadium.
    泛光灯照亮了操场。
  • The earth is illuminated by the sun.
    日光照亮地球。
  1. (formal) to make sth clearer or easier to understand
    【SYN】 clarify
  • This text illuminates the philosopher’s early thinking.
    那篇课文解释了这位翻译家的初期思想。

– library

  1. (formal) a personal collection of books, CDs, etc.
  • a new edition to add to your library
    可珍藏的新本子
  1. a series of books, recordings, etc. produced by the same company
    and similar in appearance
  • a library of children’s classics
    孩童管经济学名着连串丛书

– disinter

  1. to dig up sth, especially a dead body, from the ground
  1. ~ sth (from sth) to find sth that has been hidden or lost for a
    long time

Day 24: Words & Phrases Ⅱ

– yield up

If you yield up a secret, you reveal it.

  • //…asking law firms to yield up their deepest secrets.
    渴求律师事务所揭示其藏匿最深的神秘

– tablet

Clay tablets or stone tablets are the flat pieces of clay or stone
which people used to **write on before paper was invented. **

  • He also studied the ancient stone tablets from around the
    pyramids.他还商量了在金字塔周围发现的史前石匾。

– contemporary

a** person who lives or lived at the same time as sb** else,
especially sb who is about the same age

  • She and I were contemporaries at college.
    他和本人在大学是校友。
  • He was a contemporary of Freud and may have known him.
    她是弗洛伊德的同代人,可能认识弗洛伊德。

– autograph

a famous person’s signature, especially when sb asks them to write it

  • Could I have your autograph?
    自身能请你签个名吧?

– heyday

the time when sb / sth had most power or success, or was most
popular

  • In its heyday, the company ran trains every fifteen minutes.
    供销社在最鼎盛时期每隔十五分钟就开出一列列车。
  • a picture of Brigitte Bardot in her heyday
    碧姬 · 芭铎事业兴旺时的一张相片

– net

final, after all the important facts have been included

  • The net result is that small shopkeepers are being forced out of
    business.
    最终结出是小店主被挤出了这些行当。
  • a net gain
    终极受益

– In the true sense of the word

  • We are actually patriots in the true sense of the word.
    大家其实是实在含义上的爱国者.
  • But even with aforementioned possibilities,it is not necessary to
    continue to be friends,at least not in the true sense of the word.
    哪怕出现上述种种可能,双方也不自然继续以情侣相称,至少不是真的含义的朋友.

-decrepit

Something that is decrepit is old and in bad condition. Someone
who is decrepit is old and weak.

  • The film had been shot in a decrepit old police station.
    该影片是在一所破旧不堪的警署里拍摄的。
  • ..a decrepit old man.
    老大体衰的长者

– barbarian

  1. someone from a different tribe or land, who people believe to be
    wild and not civilized
  • The Roman Empire came under severe pressure from the barbarians
    across the Rhine.
  1. someone who does not behave properly, and does not show proper
    respect for education
    , art etc:
  • The youths were described as uncivilised barbarians who savagely
    attacked innocent victims.
  1. someone who behaves in a way that is cruel and uncivilized

– annals

Annals are chronological historical records. Some annals recount
the achievements of war heroes; others, in the form of high school
yearbooks, record historically terrible hairstyles.

– deem

to think of something in a particular way or as having a
particular quality
【SYN 】consider

  • They deemed that he was no longer capable of managing the
    business.
  • They were told to take whatever action they deemed necessary.
  • They were deemed to be illegal immigrants.

– dogmatic

If you say that someone is dogmatic, you are critical of them because
they are convinced that they are right, and refuse to consider that
other opinions might also be justified
. [disapproval]

  • Many writers at this time held rigidly dogmatic views…
    这一世有诸多大手笔固执己见。
  • The regime is dogmatic, and no one dares to express personal
    opinions.
    该政权很专制,没有人敢表明个人意见。

【拓展】dogmatically

  • He applies the Marxist world view dogmatically to all social
    phenomena.
    她将马克思主义的世界观教条地使用到独具的社会气象中去。

– dwarf

If one person or thing is dwarfed by another, the second is so
much bigger than the first that it makes them look very small
.

  • His figure is dwarfed by the huge red McDonald’s sign…
    在巨大的新民主主义革命麦当劳标志牌下,他来得很矮小。
  • The US air travel market dwarfs that of Britain.
    与美利坚联邦合众国宇航旅行市场比起来,英国的飞行旅行市场大相径庭。

– canon

Canon is all about authoritative standards—for literature,
sainthood, or behavior. Don’t confuse it with cannon with two n’s, the
big gun that shoots bowling-size balls at the enemy.

– peremptorily

(formal)in a way that allows no discussion or refusal

  • She peremptorily rejected the request.
    他断然拒绝了请求。

– court

If you laugh someone out of court, you say that their opinions or
ideas are so ridiculous that they are not worth considering.

  • It’s easy for a younger generation of critics to laugh Limon out of
    court…
    年轻一代的批评家很不难对利蒙的观点一笑置之。
  • Polytechnic lecturers have asked for 12.5 per cent, a claim sure to
    be laughed out of court.
    理法高校的教授须求12.5%,这一渴求自然不会予以考虑。

– incredulous

If someone is incredulous, they are unable to believe something
because it is very surprising or shocking.

  • ‘He made you do it?’ Her voice was incredulous…“
    她强迫你做的?”她的语气里带着质疑。
  • There was a brief, incredulous silence.
    有一段短暂的满载怀疑的沉默寡言。

– relegate

If you relegate someone or something to a less important position,
you give them this position.

  • Might it not be better to relegate the King to a purely ceremonial
    function?…
    让天皇变成纯粹发挥典礼仪式上代表意义的首领悟不会更好?
  • Other newspapers relegated the item to the middle pages.
    其它的报纸把这条新闻降格广播发表,放到了中等版面。

– veritable

You can use veritable to emphasize the size, amount, or nature of
something.

  • //…a veritable feast of pre-match entertainment.尽情的赛前游玩享受
  • //…a veritable army of security guards.一支真正的警卫部队

– restore

To restore someone or something to a previous condition means to
cause them to be in that condition once again.

  • We will restore her to health but it may take time…
    大家会让她恢复生机健康,但可能须求一些日子。
  • He said the ousted president must be restored to power…
    她说被打倒的总统必须重新执政。
  • His country desperately needs Western aid to restore its ailing
    economy.
    他的国度急需西方援救以苏醒其不景气的经济。

– contemporaneous

If two events or situations are contemporaneous, they happen or
exist during the same period of time
.

  • //…the contemporaneous development of a separate and quite
    recognisable Scottish school of art.
    一个单独而拨云见日的北爱尔兰艺术流派的还要提升

– pun

A pun is a play on words. If a bird flying overhead takes a poop
on the cake you’re carrying, you could say “Isn’t that just the icing
on the cake!” But only if you want to be punny.
Friend of the double entendre and other witticisms, a pun is a comedic
phrase that plays off of the sounds and double meanings of words.
Puns can be quite clever, but often come off as silly, cheeseball
attempts at humor. That’s probably why any good comedian will tell you
that “a pun is a short quip followed by a long groan.”

– entitle

If you are entitled to something, you have the right to have it
or do it.

  • If the warranty is limited, the terms may entitle you to a
    replacement or refund…
    假设保修有限量,根据条款你恐怕可以须要退换或者退款。
  • They are entitled to first class travel…他们得以坐头等舱旅行。
  • There are 23 Clubs throughout the U.S., and your membership entitles
    you to enjoy all of them.
    全美共有23家俱乐部,您的会员身份可让您分享所有俱乐部的服务。

– inscription

words written in the front of a book or cut in stone or metal

– scrupulous

  1. careful about paying attention to every detail

【SYN】 meticulous

  • You must be scrupulous about hygiene when you’re preparing a baby’s
    feed.
    给婴幼儿准备食物时,对衞生丝毫偷工减料不得。
  • scrupulous attention to detail
    考察入微
  1. ~ (in sth / in doing sth) careful to be honest and do what is right
  • He was scrupulous in all his business dealings.
    她在所做的整整商业贸易中都是高洁的。

【拓展】 scrupulously

  • Her house is scrupulously clean.
    他的家干干净净,一尘不到。
  • to be scrupulously honest
    颇为诚实

– nay

You use nay in front of a stronger word or phrase which you feel is
more correct than the one you have just used and helps to emphasize
the point you are making.

  • He was grateful for and proud of his son’s remarkable, nay, unique
    performance…
    他为外甥可以的,不,应该是全世界无双的表演心怀感激和得意忘形。
  • Long essays, nay, whole books have been written on this.
    过多少长度篇大论的小说,不,应该就是整部整部的书都是关于那件事的。

– deliver

If someone delivers you from something, they rescue or save you
from it.

  • I have given thanks to God for delivering me from that
    pain.我感谢上帝把自家从那种忧伤中抢救出来。

– presuppose

If one thing presupposes another, the first thing cannot be true or
exist unless the second thing is true or exists.

  • All your arguments presuppose that he’s a rational, intelligent
    man…
    你具备论点的前提都是她是一个悟性而聪慧的人。
  • The end of an era presupposes the start of another.
    一个时期的甘休表示另一个时代的发端。

– pardon

If someone who has been found guilty of a crime is pardoned, they are
officially allowed to go free and are not punished.

  • Hundreds of political prisoners were pardoned and
    released.数百名政治犯被特赦释放。

Pardon is also a noun.

  • He was granted a presidential pardon.他拿走了统御的大赦。

– throne

  1. A throne is a decorative chair used by a king, queen, or emperor
    on important official occasions.
  1. You can talk about the throne as a way of referring to the
    position of being king, queen, or emperor.
  • //…the Queen’s 50th anniversary on the throne.女皇登基 50
    周年回忆日
  • //…the heir to the throne.王位继承人

– still/much/even less

used after a negative statement in order to emphasize that it applies
even more to what you say next

  • They are not interested in reading poetry, still less in writing it.
  • I am no-one’s spokesman, much less his.

– lapse

A lapse of time is a period that is long enough for a situation to
change or for people to have a different opinion about it.

  • //…the restoration of diplomatic relations after a lapse of 24
    years

    时隔24年后外交关系的复原
  • There is usually a time lapse between receipt of new information and
    its publication.
    新信息的收取与揭橥时期平常会距离一段时间。

– numberless

If there are numberless things, there are too many to be counted.

  • //…numberless acts of personal bravery by firefighters and rescue
    workers.
    消防员和营救人士数不清的威猛行为

【SYN】countless

– effect

If you effect something that you are trying to achieve, you
succeed in causing it to happen.

  • Prospects for effecting real political change seemed to have taken a
    major step backwards.
    落成真正政治革命的机会如同变得愈加模糊了。

– furnish

If you furnish someone with something, you provide or supply
it
.

  • They’ll be able to furnish you with the rest of the
    details.他们将可向你提供任何的底细。

– commencement

  1. The commencement of something is its beginning.
  • All applicants should be at least 16 years of age at the
    commencement of this course.
    申请修读那门课程者至少要年满16岁。
  1. Commencement is a ceremony at a university, college, or high
    school at which students formally receive their degrees or
    diplomas
    .

Day 25: Map of different nations

一对地名的排列图 Map 1

图片 2

Map 1.png

几个古代文明的大致地点图 Map 2

图片 3

Map 2.png

有些开展地图

– Canaan

图片 4

large-map-land-of-canaan-during-book-of-joshua.jpg

– Egypt, Babylon, Mitanni, Hittite, Assyria

图片 5

near-east-empires.jpg

– Mesopotamia

图片 6

Mesopotamia.jpg

图片 7

美索不达米亚.jpg

– Kingdom of Israel and Judah(931 B.C. —586B.C. )

图片 8

Kingdoms_of_Israel_and_Judah_map_830.svg.png

– Assyrian Empire

图片 9

assyrianempiremap001.jpg

– Elam

图片 10

Elam_Map—susa.jpg


Day 26: Task

Task 1:迦南(巴勒斯坦国以色列国地区)的要紧人种(占据者)

图片 11

Canaanites 3000 B.C..jpg

因为图有点大,在导出之后,就不是很清晰了,所以截了大图在上面:

图片 12

图一.png

图片 13

图二.png

Reference参考文献:

  1. 《明代东方文明》
  2. 维基百科
  3. BibleStudy.org
  4. gotquestions.org
  5. 《巴勒斯坦国(the State of Palestine)的歷史糾結》林載爵,東海大學歷史系

Task 2: 三个圣经故事+多个圣经之外考古证据佐证的材料+巴比伦演进极简图

图片 14

Allution.jpeg

– Abraham

1. 故事情节

Abraham,道教圣经里面的一位人选,据说是希伯来人的鼻祖。
希伯来族长之首,为犹太教(Judaism)、道教(Christianity)和伊斯兰所爱惜。据《旧约-创世记》(Genesis)所载,亚伯拉罕七十五岁时受主召唤,离开乌尔城(Ur),辅导不孕的贤内助撒拉(Sarai)和其余人至迦南(Canaan)建立新国家。神与她定约,其子孙未来会持续那块土地,并变成强国。后来亚伯拉罕果与其妻之婢女夏甲(|Hagar)生下一子以实玛利(Ishmael),之后撒拉生下嫡子以撒(艾萨克)。当重须要亚伯拉罕捐躯以撒以考验其忠实时,他也准备遵命,但主后来态度缓和了。在犹太教里,亚伯拉罕是美德的典范;在东正教里,他是富有信徒之父;在伊斯兰里,他是穆罕默德的先人和宽松的金科玉律(于苏菲宗教〔Sufism〕)。

2. 佐证资料(1)

上世纪 20 年代到 30
年代,由英帝国大名鼎鼎考古学家列奥纳德·吴雷主持一支英美共同考古队,对苏美尔文明时代的旧城乌尔举办了长达
12
年的考古发掘,取得了令世人瞩目的成就。这一次考古行动之所以引起人们的宽泛关怀,不光是因为乌尔是《圣经》中所记载的希伯来人的高祖、先知亚伯拉罕的故园,而且还因为在那里出土了巨大得天独厚绝伦的文物,让人们只可以惊讶处于历史鼎盛时期的苏美尔文明儿早晨已达到的鲜亮。那批古墓葬属于公元前
2600 年至公元前 2500
年的早王朝末年,在一个不盛名的皇陵出土了迄今发现的最大的人殉墓葬。“受涝堆积层”也是一个关键发现,那是考古学家第四回在苏美尔遗址中发现内涝层,这为“雪暴故事”提供了考古证据。
“雨涝堆积层”上面还有居住层,当时居民使用一种别具风格的彩陶(“欧贝德彩陶”),这样,对史前考古学也有重大意义。

3.佐证资料(2)

自从考古学发现汉漠拉比的法规,并在吾珥和纽齐(NUZI伊拉克京城百达城北约一百里)掘出二万多块泥砖书,已使大家对此亚伯拉罕时代前后的平民生活景况,社会风俗有新的认识。

– Moses

1. 故事内容

Moses是纪元前十三世纪的犹太人先知,旧约圣经前五本书的执小编。指引在阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)过著奴隶生活的以色列(Israel)人,到达神所预备的流着奶和蜜之地——迦南(巴勒斯坦国的古地名,在明日约旦河与爱尔兰海的西岸一带),神借著Moses写下《十诫》给他的子民听从,并修建会幕,辅导他的子民敬拜他。
Moses最享出名时期很可能是西元前十三世纪,因为普遍认为《圣经·出阿拉伯埃及共和国记》中的法老拉美西斯二世就死于西元前1237年。因为她的名字源于埃及(Egypt)语而不是马耳他语,意思是“小孩子”或“外甥”(Moses在意大利语的趣味是:从水里拉出来),从他出生不到五百年中,Moses为所有的犹太人所仰慕。
到西元后五百年,他的名声和声望同基督教一道传遍澳大利亚联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)广大地域。
一百年未来,穆罕默德认为Moses是确实的圣人。随着伊斯兰教的扩散,Moses在一切伊斯兰世界里(甚至席卷埃及(Egypt))成了受人向往的人物。Moses在她死后三千多年的今日,仍同样遭到犹太教徒、伊斯兰教徒的爱惜,甚至还面临过多无神论者的敬意。

2. 佐证素材

阿拉伯埃及共和国元首的战车车轮:(在德雷克海峡海底找到)
在以色列(Israel)人过了西里伯斯海后,上帝把分手的马尾藻海水又合在一起时,法老的人马被淹死而葬身海地。为何在海水中它依旧如此光滑闪亮呢?它是镀金的。黄金是不生锈或腐败的,甚至在海水中也不会。珊瑚也不可以在地点生长。用那种办法,人们得以看出来,哪些轮子是由黄金做的,哪些不是。
察觉车轮的大概地点:埃及(Egypt)的Nuweiba海岸处横过白海的“陆地桥”。
在濑户内海陆地桥上找分别到了4根,6根,和8根轮条的战车车轮。
这是留学的车轮的纯金外壳。下图中的大轮为8根的。那种8根条的车,只被用来明代埃及(Egypt)的第18个朝代一时。

– Joseph

1. 故事内容

《圣经》人物。雅各与拉结所生之子。因聪颖得其父偏爱而遭众兄弟嫉恨,众兄将其卖掉,后被带到埃及(Egypt)。因给阿拉伯埃及共和国法老释梦获得重用,被任为宰相。任职时期阿拉伯埃及共和国仓满粮足。后因其故乡迦南遇饔飧不继,与前来埃及(Egypt)买粮的小兄弟相认和平解决,并接其父前往埃及(Egypt)。与其兄弟联手被视为以色列国(The State of Israel)十二列祖之一。

2. 佐证素材

图 1.
阿拉伯埃及共和国中王朝晚期的芦苇草纸卷文献,为一家族奴隶名单,计有79人奴仆的名字,其中40位是闪族人名。

图片 15

c10e161cgdf4362886639&690.jpeg

从前文《亚伯拉罕的故事》所述,在亚伯拉罕时期就有无数的迦南人,因着饔飧不济或从商的原故进入阿拉伯埃及共和国。到了约瑟时代,从迦南及西乃半岛来到埃及(Egypt)的人工数更加多。除了饔飧不继及交易,更有和约瑟一样是被卖到阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)来作奴隶的。从中王朝大量的民间文献看来,当时确已有诸多闪族人散居埃及(Egypt)四海。图一所示为阿拉伯埃及共和国中王朝晚期的芦苇草纸卷文献,时间约在中王朝的第12与第13王朝之间。纸卷为一家族奴隶名单,计有79位奴仆的名字,其中40位是闪族人名,如施佛拉(Shiphrah,名同Moses出生时的希伯来接生婆)及米拿现(Menahem,名同《王下》15∶14迦底的幼子)等。而她们的监护人名份是“管理家务”。约瑟在波提乏家,他的名份和任务也是“管理家务”(《创》39∶4)。
在总体“约瑟故事”之中,并不曾明写约瑟拜官的级差。法老也没有用“宰相”那样的头衔来封侯约瑟。但约瑟的地方与职务明确是“治理埃及(Egypt)全地”,职尊一人之下,万人之上(《创》41∶40)。从她的劳作范围和他干活的属性看来,尽管不是首相,至少是内政、经济、农业司长。我们可从考古发掘的埃及(Egypt)“墓画”,来看当时首相封侯的仪式。阿拉伯埃及共和国人爱面子,更加是贵族,总爱将她们生前的丰功伟业刻画在安葬石室的墙上。

图片 16

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图二所示就是一位首相(Vizier)封侯墓画∶请看那位新官宰相,仰脸欣赏她被赐的手环,宫女为之穿上新衣,又助长一条既粗且宽而且极有分量的金子项链挂在他脖子上。那幅墓画,是或不是和(《创》41∶42-43)中讲述约瑟受官职仪极为相似∶“法老就摘入手上打印的钻戒,戴在约瑟的手上,给她穿上细麻衣,把金链戴在她的脖子上。”
我们不明了约瑟是或不是阿拉伯埃及共和国的率先个闪族宰相,但起码知道他不是倒数一位。依据由阿拉伯埃及共和国卡那神庙(坦普尔of
Karnack)出土的文献报告,闪族人在新王朝时任职高官者大有人在。目前考古学家埃伦哲维(Alain
Zivic)1990年的报告,他们的考古队在某处发掘另一位闪族宰相(Vizier)的墓画,时间是埃及(Egypt)过来历史记载后的新王朝时代。这位闪族宰相名亚佩尔(Aper-el),内人为阿拉伯埃及共和国人。他的事迹写在芦苇草纸的档案上,万分详尽。试想一位活在有那麽详细资料记录朝代的宰相,尚且要等到20世纪的80年代末才出土,那麽要找寻第二中衰期没有档案记载的约瑟文献,就要继续耐心的守候考古队更遥远、流愈多汗水的战果了。

“约瑟死了,正110岁。人用香料将她薰了,把他收殓在棺木里,停在埃及(Egypt)。”(《创》53∶26)那段叙述是道道地地的“阿拉伯埃及共和国化”。约瑟的身躯被木乃伊化,那自然是阿拉伯埃及共和国地风俗,也是为着便利未来带回迦南地。约瑟死时110岁,却凑巧是阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)人予以他们的“先圣先贤”的上佳寿数,不管他们的确的寿命为啥。无怪乎后世历史家稀奇于“约瑟故事”的作者肯定有许多的“埃及(Egypt)经验”。若他们确认小编是Moses,而又愿意多读一些佛经,当就精通“Moses学了阿拉伯埃及共和国(The Arab Republic of Egypt)人的整套文化。”(《徒》7∶22)这一体也就不算“稀奇”了!

– Babylon发展演示图

虽说曾经竭尽的简化,但是内容如故多少多

图片 17

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Day 27: Summary & Supplementary Information

Supplementary Information

有局部信息我以为可能对领会文章有赞助,所以也放在了此间,作为补偿材料。

图片 18

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图片 19

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图片 20

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Summary

  • Well, to be honest, this article is really difficult for me, because
    I am really not familiar with history and geography, let alone the
    history of other countries and other areas beside Asia. And the
    first time I read this article, I was struggling with the difference
    between Palestine and Pakistan. They are very similar in accent. But
    after some research, I found that there is no accurate area called
    Palestine. Then, I felt desperate, especially when I have a list of
    nearly 100 unfamiliar words as well as those complicated names of
    Bible figures. Yes, so I spent nearly 3 day to deal with this
    article in order to get through it. And today, I will just share
    something I learnt in this process.

  • First, even though those complicated names really bother me, I get
    to learn much about those stories in the Bible. And I find it a
    little interesting. Well, sometimes it’s just pretty amazing. I
    mean, These stories are related with the history and it’s difficult
    to tell whether they are true or not. But to some extent, it makes
    sense. So I really think the work of archaeology is quite big stuff.
    For example, I am really impressed with the names of those Bible
    figures in my research. And here is a chart to show them.

![](https://upload-images.jianshu.io/upload_images/4950537-3f6b7c5951cf0234.png)

诺亚儿子列表1.png



![](https://upload-images.jianshu.io/upload_images/4950537-00d1e1365518297d.png)

诺亚儿子列表2.png



Well, it's just so amazing. Different people in different nations
are related with the Bible and God. And it seems so sensible.
Sometimes, I can't even tell whether the Bible is just a story or
the reality. It's really interesting.
  • Then, some thoughts of the author really impress me. Like, he said,
    “ the impossibility of forming a correct judgment in regard to any
    one part of it without reference to the rest”. And the author means
    that we can never form a correct judgement without regarding the
    rest part of it. I think this is a very great idea. When you learn
    something, you have to put yourself in the whole system of that
    background, and then you get to know the origin, development and the
    result. It’s an important process. Without it, we may find ourselves
    trapped in those numberless unintelligible things. Take myself for
    an example, I got really confused at first when I read this article
    the first time, but after studying the related background, I feel
    better. And I really have a specific idea of those countries like
    Assyria and Canaan.

  • And, he also said, “He has been warned, too, against making his own
    prepossessions and assumptions the test of historical truth, of
    laying down that a reported fact could not have happened because it
    runs counter to what he assumes to have been the state of society in
    some particular age.” I think this is very right. When we study
    something or try to find the truth of something, we need to be
    object and rid ourselves from our own prepossession so that we can
    make the right conclusion. Otherwise, what we conclude is useless
    because of its subjectiveness.

  • Beside the history of Israel and its surrounding nations, I learn
    more about the method to study. The author put forward a very
    helpful perspective of learning and thinking throughout the article,
    and it’s really beneficial for my future study. I will try to study
    and think like that.

  • After all, I really have learnt a lot in the process. I gained much
    knowledge about the Bible and the history of the Israel, Egypt and
    so on. Even though it’s really complicated and I still couldn’t
    figure out some part of the article until now, but I think my
    efforts will pay off.

  • And great thanks to Annie and Gambition. Thank you for your help and
    direction.

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