The empire the world forgot这一个被世界遗忘的帝国

Ruled by a dizzying array of kingdoms and empires over the
centuries, the former regional power of Ani is now an eerie, abandoned
city of ghosts

被让人眼花缭乱的王国和王朝统治了少数个百年,Ani的前电力区域现在是一个被丢弃的人言可畏的魔鬼城市。

**An abandoned city of ghosts
**

一个幽灵的废弃城市

Ruled by a dizzying array of kingdoms and empires over the centuries –
from the Byzantines to the Ottomans – the city of Ani once housed many
thousands of people, becoming a cultural hub and regional power under
the medieval Bagratid Armenian dynasty. Today, it’s an eerie,
abandoned city of ghosts that stands alone on a plateau in the remote
highlands of northeast Turkey, 45km away from the Turkish border city
of Kars. As you walk among the many ruins, left to deteriorate for
over 90 years, the only sound is the wind howling through a ravine
that marks the border between Turkey and Armenia.

其一城市被令人眼花缭乱的王国统治了某些个世纪,从拜占庭王朝到奥斯曼帝国,Ani城一度容纳了许多的食指,成为中世纪Bagratid亚美尼亚王朝的学识主旨和区域力量。而现在,它是一个可怕的、被撤废的魔鬼之城,独自站在土耳其边防之城Carl斯45英里之外的悠长的东北高原地区的一座小山上。正如你度过的许多废墟一样,它被残留在此处穿梭恶化了90多年,惟一的声音是标志着土耳其和亚美尼亚分界线的充足山谷中呼啸而过的风声。

**The toll of many rulers
**

过多统治者的数额

Visitors who pass through Ani’s city walls are greeted with a
panoramic view of ruins that span three centuries and five empires –
including the Bagratid Armenians, Byzantines, Seljuk Turks, Georgians
and Ottomans. The Ani plateau was ceded to Russia once the Ottoman
Empire was defeated in the 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War. After the
outbreak of World War I, the Ottomans fought to take back northeast
Anatolia, and although they recaptured Ani and the surrounding area,
the region was given to the newly formed Republic of Armenia. The site
changed hands for the last time after the nascent Turkish Republic
captured it during the 1920 eastern offensive in the Turkish War of
Independence.

迎接穿过Ani城墙的游人的是抢先两个世纪、六个朝代的断壁残垣的全貌,包括Badratid的亚美尼亚人、拜占庭、塞尔柱王朝的土耳其人、格鲁吉亚人和土耳其人。奥斯曼王朝曾经在1877-1878年的俄罗丝(Rose)-土耳其战事中被制伏,Ani高原被割让给了俄国(Rose)。世界第一次大战爆发之后,奥斯曼夺回了东北的安纳托林茨,虽然他们再次夺回了Ani及其周边地区,不过这片区域被给了新创设的亚美尼亚共和国。这么些地点在1920年发出于土耳其东部的土耳其独立战争中被土耳其共和国主政后最后三次转手。

**A hotly contested territory
**

一片炙手可热的山河

The ruins of an ancient bridge over the Akhurian River, which winds
its way at the bottom of the ravine to create a natural border, are
fitting given the vexed state of Turkish-Armenian relations. The two
countries have long disagreed over the mass killings of Armenians that
took place under the Ottoman Empire during World War I, and Turkey
officially closed its land border with Armenia in 1993 in response to
a territorial conflict between Armenia and Turkey’s ally
Azerbaijan.

Akhurian河流上的古桥废墟,蜿蜒在溪水底部,创建出了一个纯天然边界,正好合乎了土耳其和亚美尼亚哭笑不得的国度关系。六个国家直接以来都不能针对世界一战之内奥斯曼王朝对亚美吉亚人的汪洋杀戮达成一致意见,土耳其法定在1993年对亚美吉亚封锁了土地边界,来解惑亚美吉亚和土耳其盟军阿塞拜疆之间的领域纠纷。

**A bid to save the ruins
**

为了营救废墟

Although the focus on Turkish-Armenian tension preoccupies most
discussion of Ani, there’s an ongoing effort by archaeologists and
activists to save the ruins, which have been abandoned in favour of
more accessible and less historically contested sites from classical
antiquity. Historians have long argued for Ani’s importance as a
forgotten medieval nexus, and as a result, Ani is now on a tentative
list for recognition as aUnesco World Heritage
Site
**
.
With some luck and careful restoration work, which has begun in 2011,
they may be able to forestall the hands of time.

**

纵然对土耳其-亚美吉亚紧张关系的关怀引起了对Ani的热议, 考古学家和
积极分子们一如既往在相连不断地拼命挽救这片废墟,尽管它被众人丢弃,来支撑这一个进一步使得,有更少历史争持的史前遗址。经济学家长时间争辨Ani作为被淡忘的中世纪关系的最重要,结果,现在Ani暂时被列入世界文化遗产的清单了。因为有的天机和从二零一一年先河的周全修复工作,他们也许可以抵抗时间之手。

**‘The City of 1,001 Churches’
**

1001个教堂之城

At its height during the 11th Century, scholars estimate that Ani’s
population reached as high as 100,000 people. Artistic renderings
based on the site’s archaeological findings show a bustling medieval
centre crowded with myriad homes, artisanal workshops and impressive
churches scattered throughout.

Known as “The City of 1,001 Churches”, Ani’s Armenian rulers and city
merchants funded an extraordinary number of places of worship, all
designed by the greatest architectural and artistic minds in their
milieu. Although the nickname was hyperbole, archaeologists have
discovered evidence of at least 40 churches, chapels and mausoleums to
date.

在11世纪的敞亮时期,学者们猜度Ani的总人口最多可以直达10万人。基于考古发现的艺术表演显示了一个蜂拥的中世纪核心,充满着各样住房、手工作坊和散落的让人印象深切的礼拜堂。

1001个教堂之城成名,Ani的亚美吉亚统治者和城市商人建立了汪洋的手工作坊,所有的都是源于于城市中央最出色的建筑和方法思想。即使这个昵称是夸大说法,然而考古学家们早已发现了至少40个教堂、小礼堂和陵墓作为凭证。

**An imposing cathedral
**

一个壮观的大教堂

A rust-coloured brick redoubt, the Cathedral of Ani looms over the
now-abandoned city. Although its dome collapsed in an earthquake in
1319 – and, centuries later, another earthquake destroyed its
northwest corner – it is still imposing in scale. It was completed in
1001 under the reign of Armenian King Gagik I, when the wealth and
population of Ani was at its peak. Trdat, the renowned Armenian
architect who designed it, also served the Byzantines by helping them
repair the dome of theHagia
Sophia
.

一个锈色的磁砖多面堡,Ani大教堂朦胧地冒出在已经被废弃的都市中。尽管它的圆屋顶在1319年的地震中早就坍塌了,多少个百年以后,另一场馆震摧毁了西北一角,不过依照比例来看,它如故非凡壮观。它是在亚美吉亚皇上加吉亚一世的主政之下,在1001年落成的,这时Ani的财物和人数都曾经抵达了极端。设计这一个大教堂的有名亚美吉亚建筑师杜德,也为拜占庭王朝服务,匡助她们弥合圣Sophy娜的圆屋顶。

**Half of a church
**

主教堂的一半

Only one half of the Church of the Redeemer remains – a monument to
both the artistic prowess of the Armenian Bagratid Dynasty and the
inevitability of time. Propped up by extensive scaffolding now, the
church was an impressive architectural feat when it was built. It
featured 19 archways and a dome, all made from local reddish-brown
volcanic basalt.

偏偏只剩余耶稣教堂的一半还在,作为亚美吉亚巴格拉提德王朝精湛的不二法门和岁月必然性的思量。教堂现在被大量的脚手架支撑着,当初被建造的时候是一个令人记忆深入的建造功绩。它以19到拱门和一个圆屋顶著称,都是由红黑色的火山玄武岩制作而成。

这么些教堂还放置着耶稣被定死的十字架的碎片。相传,这一个教堂的赞助人Ablgharib
Pahlavid王子在君士坦丁堡参观拜占庭法庭时收获了一件遗物。

**A church fit for a prince
**

跟王子相关的礼拜堂

Built sometime in the late 10th Century, the Church of St Gregory of
the Abughamrentsis a stoic-looking, 12-sided chapel that has a dome
carved with blind arcades: arches that are purely for embellishment
instead of leading to a portal. In the early 1900s, a mausoleum was
discovered buried under the church’s north side, likely containing the
remains of the church’s patron, Prince Grigor Pahlavuni of the
Bagratid Armenians, and his kin. Unfortunately, like many of the sites
at Ani, the prince’s sepulchre was looted in the 1990s.

St 格雷戈里 of the
Abughamrentsis教堂建于10世纪中期,一副禁欲主义的容颜,12个小礼堂,每个小礼堂都有一个雕刻着弧形图案的圆屋顶:拱门纯粹是作为装饰的,而不是用来当大门。在20世纪初期,一个陵墓被发现埋在教堂的北侧,极有可能有教堂的赞助人亚美尼亚Grigor
Pahlavuni of the
Bagratid王子的旧物和他的同族。不幸的是,像Ani的不少遗址一样,王子的陵墓在20世纪被盗了。

**The remnants of an underground city
**

一个地下城的遗留之物

Opposite the Church of St Gregory of the Abughamrentsare a series of
caves dug out of the rock, which some historians speculate may predate
Ani. The caves are sometimes described as Ani’s “underground city” and
signs point to their use as tombs and churches. In the early 20th
Century, some of these caves were still used as dwellings.

在St Gregory of the
Abughamrentsare教堂的反方向的一体系洞中,被挖出了一些岩石,很多思想家揣度这么些岩石可能早于Ani。这么些洞穴有时候被描述成Ani的野鸡之城和标志标明他们被当作墓穴和教堂。在20世纪初期,其中的有的洞穴还被作为民居。

Frescoes cover the walls

有手表的教堂

The Church of St Gregory of Tigran Honents is one of Ani’s best
preserved buildings, adorned with remnants of paintings depicting
scenes from the life of Christ and St Gregory the Illuminator.
Detailed fresco cycles did not ordinarily appear in Armenian art of
the era, leading scholars to believe the artists were most likely
Georgian.

St 格雷戈里 of
TigranHonents教堂标志着山间的警戒将土耳其和亚美吉亚区分开来。受到一个巨富的信托建于1215的礼拜堂被确立的时候,格鲁吉亚王国的统治者将Ani当成亚美吉亚统治者血统The
Zakarians的领地。秋季的时候,孤独的礼拜堂在远处无边无际、冰雪覆盖的亚美吉亚草原的反衬下形成了触目惊心的面貌。

**Frescoes cover the walls
**

摄影覆盖着墙壁

The Church of St Gregory of Tigran Honents is one of Ani’s best
preserved buildings, adorned with remnants of paintings depicting
scenes from the life of Christ and St Gregory the Illuminator.
Detailed fresco cycles did not ordinarily appear in Armenian art of
the era, leading scholars to believe the artists were most likely
Georgian.

St 格雷戈里(Gregory) of Tigran
Honents教堂是Ani保存的最好的建筑之一,被描述基督生活和圣格里高利装饰的画作的残留物装饰着。详细的水墨画周期并未出现在亚美吉亚办法时代,使得我们们相信这一个艺术家是格鲁吉亚人。

**An Islamic minaret still stands
**

一个清真塔尖依旧伫立不倒

The Seljuk Empire – a Turkish state in Anatolia that drove out the
Byzantines and eventually gave way to the Ottoman Empire – controlled
the greater area of what is today northeast Turkey and Armenia
beginning in the mid-1000s. However, in 1072, the Seljuks granted
control of Ani to an Islamic dynasty of Kurdish origin, the
Shaddadids. The Shaddadids, in turn, left their mark on Ani with
buildings like the mosque of Manuchihr, which is perched precariously
on the edge of the cliff. Its minaret is still standing from when the
mosque was constructed in the late 1000s; the rest of the mosque is
most likely an addition from the 12th or 13th Centuries.

塞尔柱王朝,土耳其的一个州安纳托伊兹密尔赶走了拜占庭,最后让位于奥斯曼帝国,控制着更宽广的地区,包括今日的土耳其东北部和开首于11世纪先前时期的亚美吉亚。不过,在1072年,塞尔柱王朝把控制下的Ani变成了库尔德王朝的的起点the
Shaddadids。The
Shaddadids反过来在Ani留下了她们的标志性建筑,比如清真寺,被建于山崖边缘,极不安全。它的尖塔从11世纪末年清真寺被确立就直接伫立不倒,清真寺的剩余部分很有可能是从12世纪或者13世纪被增长的。

**Origins up for debate
**

出自的争辨

The original purpose of the mosque of Manuchihr is debated on both the
Turkish and Armenian sides. Some contend that the building once served
as a palace for the Armenian Bagratid dynasty and was only later
converted into a mosque. Others argue that the structure was built as
a mosque from the ground up, and thus was the first Turkish mosque in
Anatolia. From 1906 to 1918, the mosque served as a museum of findings
from Ani’s excavation by the Russian archaeologist Nicholas Marr.
Regardless of the building’s origins, the mosque’s four elegant
windows display spectacular views of the river and the other side of
the gorge.

土耳其和亚美吉亚两头直接争议Manuchihr清真寺起家的初期目的。有些人以为这一个建筑已经是亚美吉亚巴格拉提德王朝的一个宫殿,后来有时被改建成清真寺。还有人争执到这多少个建筑一起首建成清真寺,由此是在安纳托格拉茨的首先个土耳其清真寺。从1906年到1918年,这么些清真寺被俄罗丝考古学家NicholasMarr当成Ani考古发现的博物馆。不管那么些建筑最初的溯源是如何,清真寺的两个优雅的窗户展现了河水和山谷另一头的壮观视角。

**Once formidable city walls
**

早已让人生畏的城墙

Ani’s city walls may seem ready to crumble, but when they were
constructed in the 10th Century, they made for a formidable defence.
The Bagratid family of kings built them in order to fortify their new
capital and, over the centuries, they protected the city’s occupants
against siege after siege by various armies. These ramparts, along
with Ani’s inhabitants, witnessed bloody conflicts between the
Bagratids and the Byzantines, and the Byzantines and the Seljuks.

Despite Ani’s history as a field of warfare, the ruins also represent
many periods throughout history where the city saw a remarkable
interchange of cultures, religions and artistic motifs.

Ani的城墙看起来已经快要崩塌了,然则当他俩在10世纪被建造的时候,他们表明着强大的防守效能。巴格拉提德王朝的君王们建造他们是为着设防于他们的新上海,多少个世纪过去了,它们珍视着城内的居民抵挡不同的军旅一回又三遍的围攻。那多少个壁垒伴随着Ani的居民,见证了巴格拉提德王朝和拜占庭王朝,拜占庭王朝和塞尔柱王朝之间血腥的顶牛。

即使Ani的野史是一部战争史,这一个残垣断壁也意味了历史长河中的很多品级,在这么些等级中,这座都市见证了知识、宗教和章程的非凡发展。

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